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Dilated Cardiomyopathy Sequencing Panel

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Sequencing

Test Code TestCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1339 ABCC9 81479 Add to Order
ACTC1 81405
ACTN2 81479
ANKRD1 81405
CAV3 81404
CRYAB 81479
CSRP3 81479
DES 81405
DSC2 81406
DSG2 81406
DSP 81406
EMD 81405
LAMA4 81479
LAMP2 81405
LDB3 81406
LMNA 81406
MYBPC3 81407
MYH6 81407
MYH7 81407
NEXN 81479
PKP2 81406
PLN 81403
RBM20 81479
SGCD 81405
TAZ 81406
TCAP 81479
TNNC1 81405
TNNI3 81405
TNNT2 81406
TPM1 81405
TTN 81479
VCL 81479
Full Panel Price* $2040.00
Test Code Test Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
1339 Genes x (32) $2040.00 81403, 81404, 81405(x9), 81406(x8), 81407(x3), 81479(x10) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

If you would like to order a subset of these genes contact us to discuss pricing.

Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Approximately 30-40% of patients with familial dilated cardiomyopathy will have a pathogenic mutation in one of the genes in this panel (Hershberger and Morales 2013). 

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code TestIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 ABCC9$690.00 81479 Add to Order
ACTC1$690.00 81479
ACTN2$690.00 81479
CAV3$690.00 81479
CRYAB$690.00 81479
CSRP3$690.00 81479
DES$690.00 81479
DSC2$690.00 81479
DSG2$690.00 81479
DSP$690.00 81479
EMD$690.00 81404
LAMP2$690.00 81479
LDB3$690.00 81479
LMNA$690.00 81479
MYBPC3$690.00 81479
MYH6$690.00 81479
MYH7$690.00 81479
PKP2$690.00 81479
PLN$690.00 81479
SGCD$690.00 81479
TAZ$690.00 81479
TCAP$690.00 81479
TNNC1$690.00 81479
TNNI3$690.00 81479
TNNT2$690.00 81479
TPM1$690.00 81479
TTN$690.00 81479
VCL$690.00 81479
Full Panel Price* $1290.00
Test Code Test Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
600 Genes x (28) $1290.00 81404, 81479(x27) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price

1

$690

2

$730

3

$770

4-10

$840

11-30

$1,290

31-100

$1,670

Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

No large scale studies have been performed to determine the prevalence of gross insertions and deletions in familial DCM. 

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Clinical Features

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heterogeneous disease of the cardiac muscle. It is characterized by dilatation of the left, right, or both ventricles, systolic dysfunction, and diminished myocardial contractility. Symptoms include arrhythmia, dyspnea, chest pain, palpitation, fainting, and congestive heart failure (Ikram et al. 1987). Additional features may include conduction defects, woolly hair, and skeletal myopathy (Moller et al. 2009). Idiopathic DCM may be familial in 20-35% of cases, most showing an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern (Hershberger and  Morales 2013). Although symptoms of DCM usually begin in adulthood, an extensive clinical variability between individuals concerning the age of onset, penetrance, and extent of structural and functional abnormality has been documented. The prevalence of DCM has been estimated at ~1/2700 (Codd et al. 1989). For additional information see GeneReviews (Hershberger and Morales 2013).

Genetics

DCM is genetically heterogeneous disease. DCM is most commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner caused by mutations in the ACTC1, ACTN2, ANKRD1, CAV3, CRYAB, CSRP3, DES, DSC2, DSG2, DSP, LAMA4, LDB3, LMNA, MYBPC3, MYH6, MYH7, NEXN, PKP2, PLN, RBM20, SGCD, TCAP, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, TTN, and VCL genes (Hershberger and Morales 2013). Pathogenic mutations in EMD causes X-linked recessive Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy with cardiac involvement (Buckley et al 1999). Pathogenic mutations in TAZ causes Barth syndrome, which is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner (Bione et al. 1996). Pathogenic mutations in LAMP2 causes Danon disease, which is inherited in an X-linked dominant manner (Sugie et al. 2002). In male patients with Danon disease, symptoms begin earlier and are usually more severe than in female patients. See individual gene test descriptions for information on molecular biology of gene products.

Testing Strategy

For this Next Generation (NextGen) panel, we sequence all coding exons of the genes listed below, plus ~20 nucleotides of flanking DNA for each exon. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic and undocumented variants are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

Indications for Test

Patients with symptoms suggestive of dilated cardiomyopathy.

Diseases

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type 2 302060
Cardiomyopathy Dilated With Woolly Hair And Keratoderma 605676
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1II 615184
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1JJ 615235
Danon Disease 300257
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1A 115200
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1Aa 612158
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1BB 612877
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1C 601493
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1CC 613122
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1D 601494
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1DD 613172
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1Ee 613252
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1FF 613286
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1G 604145
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1I 604765
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1L 606685
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1M 607482
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1N 607487
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1O 608569
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1P 609909
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1R 613424
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1S 613426
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1W 611407
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1Y 611878
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1Z 611879
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 2A 611880
Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy 1, X-Linked 310300
Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 1 192600
Left ventricular noncompaction 10 615396

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Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia via the DSC2 Gene
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia via the DSG2 Gene
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia via the PKP2 Gene
Autosomal Dominant Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) Sequencing Panel
Barth Syndrome via the TAZ Gene
Cantu Syndrome via the ABCC9 Gene
Caveolinopathy via the CAV3 Gene
Centronuclear Myopathy Sequencing Panel
Charcot Marie Tooth - Axonal Neuropathy Sequencing Panel
Charcot Marie Tooth - Comprehensive Sequencing Panel
Comprehensive Neuromuscular Sequencing Panel
Comprehensive Neuropathy Sequencing Panel
Congenital Cataracts Sequencing Panel
Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion Sequencing Panel
Congenital Myopathy Sequencing Panel
Core Myopathy Sequencing Panel
Danon Disease/Glycogen Storage Disease IIb via the LAMP2 Gene
Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2F via the SGCD Gene
Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the LAMA4 Gene
Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the RBM20 Gene
Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the NEXN Gene
Distal Hereditary Myopathy Sequencing Panel
Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD1) via the EMD Gene
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Syndrome Sequencing Panel
Glycogen Storage Disease and Disorders of Glucose Metabolism Sequencing Panel
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) via the LMNA Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the ACTN2 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the CSRP3 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the MYH6 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the PLN Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the TPM1 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy via the VCL Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and other MYH7-Related Disorders via the MYH7 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Related Disorders via the ACTC1 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Related Disorders via the TNNI3 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Related Disorders via the TNNT2 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sequencing Panel
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy via the MYBPC3 Gene
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy via the TNNC1 Gene
Laminopathies via the LMNA Gene
Left Ventricular Noncompaction (LVNC) Sequencing Panel
Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2J and Tibial Muscular Dystrophy via the TTN Gene (exons 307 - 312)
Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) Sequencing Panel
Long QT Syndrome Sequencing Panel
Myofibrillar Myopathy Sequencing Panel
Myofibrillar Myopathy via the CRYAB Gene
Myofibrillar Myopathy via the DES Gene
Myofibrillar Myopathy via the LDB3 (ZASP) Gene
Telethoninopathy via the TCAP Gene
X-Linked Intellectual Disability Sequencing Panel

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Bione S, D’Adamo P, Maestrini E, Gedeon AK, Bolhuis PA, Toniolo D. 1996. A novel X-linked gene, G4.5. is responsible for Barth syndrome. Nat. Genet. 12: 385–389. PubMed ID: 8630491
  • Buckley A, Dean J, Mahy I. 1999. Cardiac involvement in Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: a case series. Heart 82: 105–108. PubMed ID: 10377322
  • Codd MB. et al. 1989. Circulation. 80: 564-72. PubMed ID: 2766509
  • Hershberger RE, Morales A. 2013. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Overview. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong C-T, and Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews™, Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PubMed ID: 20301486
  • Ikram H. et al. 1987. British heart journal. 57: 521-7. PubMed ID: 3620228
  • Møller DV. et al. 2009. European journal of human genetics : EJHG. 17: 1241-9. PubMed ID: 19293840
  • Sugie K, Yamamoto A, Murayama K, Oh SJ, Takahashi M, Mora M, Riggs JE, Colomer J, Iturriaga C, Meloni A, Lamperti C, Saitoh S, et al. 2002. Clinicopathological features of genetically confirmed Danon disease. Neurology 58: 1773–1778. PubMed ID: 12084876
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

NextGen Sequencing

Test Procedure

We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon.  As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes.  Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).  Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing.  All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions.  After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).

(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign, Common Variants

Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (http://www.hgvs.org).  Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.

In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.   

Analytical Limitations

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available.  Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.  Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion.   In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele.  Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).

We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon.  Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants.  In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited.  Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood).   Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics.  However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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