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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) Panel

Summary and Pricing

Test Method

Exome Sequencing with CNV Detection
Test Code Test Copy Genes Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
ACVRL1 81479,81479
BMPR1B 81479,81479
BMPR2 81406,81405
CAV1 81479,81479
EIF2AK4 81479,81479
ENG 81406,81405
GDF2 81479,81479
KCNA5 81479,81479
KCNK3 81479,81479
SMAD9 81479,81479
TBX4 81479,81479
Test Code Test Copy Genes Panel CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Code Base Price
12625Genes x (11)81479 81405(x2), 81406(x2), 81479(x18) $990 Order Options and Pricing

Pricing Comments

We are happy to accommodate requests for testing single genes in this panel or a subset of these genes. The price will remain the list price. If desired, free reflex testing to remaining genes on panel is available. Alternatively, a single gene or subset of genes can also be ordered via our Custom Panel tool.

An additional 25% charge will be applied to STAT orders. STAT orders are prioritized throughout the testing process.

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGxome (if original test is on PGxome Sequencing platform).

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGnome (if original test is on PGnome Sequencing platform).

Turnaround Time

3 weeks on average for standard orders or 2 weeks on average for STAT orders.

Please note: Once the testing process begins, an Estimated Report Date (ERD) range will be displayed in the portal. This is the most accurate prediction of when your report will be complete and may differ from the average TAT published on our website. About 85% of our tests will be reported within or before the ERD range. We will notify you of significant delays or holds which will impact the ERD. Learn more about turnaround times here.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, go to our Targeted Variants page.


Genetic Counselors


  • Brett Deml, PhD

Clinical Features and Genetics

Clinical Features

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease in which occlusion of small pulmonary arteries causes increasing resistance of blood flow through the pulmonary vasculature. This increase in resistance generates higher pressure in the right ventricle and eventually results in heart failure. Symptoms of PAH can include in decreasing order of frequency: dyspnea, fatigue, syncope, chest pain, palpitation, and edema. Onset of PAH ranges significantly; however, the mean age of diagnosis is ~36 years (Rich et al. 1987. PubMed ID: 3605900). Penetrance in BMPR2-related PAH is incomplete and is significantly higher in females (~42%) than males (~14%) (Larkin et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22923661). The estimated annual incidence of PAH is ~1-2 cases per 1,000,000 people per year (Gaine and Rubin. 1998. PubMed ID: 9729004).

PAH can present with hereditary hemoragic telangictasia (HHT) or ischiocoxopodopatellar syndrome (ICPPS) (Girerd et al. 2010. PubMed ID: 20056902). Rarely, PAH can be present without signs of HHT, often early in the onset of disease (Fujiwara et al. 2008. PubMed ID: 18159113). Additionally, individuals with pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) can frequently be misdiagnosed as having PAH (Hadinnapola et al. 2017. PubMed ID: 28972005). Importantly, determining the molecular basis has implications in these cases as PVOD is recessive and the penetrance of HHT, PVOD, and ICPPS is complete or nearly complete. Additionally, testing may be able to differentiate between idiopathic and heritable forms of PAH.


The great majority of heritable forms of PAH are caused by pathogenic variants in BMPR2, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. A majority of these variants are loss-of-function (nonsense, frameshift, splicing); however, missense variants have also been reported. Gross deletions in BMPR2 account for ~14-23% of cases (Cogan et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16728714; Gräf et al. 2018. PubMed ID: 29650961). De novo BMPR2 variants have been documented in sporadic cases of PAH (Thomson et al. 2000. PubMed ID: 11015450); however, the proportion of individuals with de novo variants is currently unknown. Rarer causes of PAH (BMPR1B, CAV1, KCNA5, KCNK3, SMAD9, GDF2), ICPPS (TBX4), and HHT (ACVRL1, ENG) are all inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, except for PVOD (EIF2AK4) which exhibits autosomal recessive inheritance.

BMPR2 is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily of signalling molecules. BMP signal transduction begins when a BMP ligand binds to a heterotetrameric complex of two type I receptors (ACVR1 or BMPR1B) and two type II receptors (BMPR2). Additionally, ENG acts as a co-receptor with this heterotetrameric receptor complex. The active type II receptor then transphosphorylates the type I receptor, which in turn phosphorylates the regulatory SMADs (SMAD1/5/8). The regulatory SMAD then associates with its co-Smad (SMAD4) and translocates to the nucleus to regulate target gene expression (Wang et al. 2014. PubMed ID: 25401122). Disruptions in this signaling cascade are believed to result in the loss of anti-proliferative effects resulting in increased proliferation and a lack of apoptosis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, which is an important pathological feature of PAH (Dewachter et al. 2009. PubMed ID: 19324947).

See individual gene summaries for more information about molecular biology of gene products and spectra of pathogenic variants.

Clinical Sensitivity - Sequencing with CNV PGxome

In one study, ~68% of individuals with a family history of PAH had pathogenic variants in BMPR2, while ~5% of individuals had pathogenic variants in ACVRL1 (Girerd et al. 2010. PubMed ID: 20056902). However, in sporadic cases of PAH variants in BMPR2 and ACVRL1 were found in ~15% and ~2% of cases, respectively (Girerd et al. 2010. PubMed ID: 20056902). Pathogenic variants in several other genes (BMPR1B, CAV1, EIF2AK4, ENG, GDF2, KCNA5, KCNK3, SMAD9, TBX4) account for a small minority of PAH (~1-3%) (Gräf et al. 2018. PubMed ID: 29650961; Southgate et al. 2020. PubMed ID: 31406341).

Testing Strategy

This test is performed using Next-Gen sequencing with additional Sanger sequencing as necessary.

This panel provides 100% coverage of all coding exons of the genes plus 10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA in all available transcripts along with other non-coding regions in which pathogenic variants have been identified at PreventionGenetics or reported elsewhere. We define coverage as ≥20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing. PGnome panels typically provide slightly increased coverage over the PGxome equivalent. PGnome sequencing panels have the added benefit of additional analysis and reporting of deep intronic regions (where applicable).

Dependent on the sequencing backbone selected for this testing, discounted reflex testing to any other similar backbone-based test is available (i.e., PGxome panel to whole PGxome; PGnome panel to whole PGnome).

Indications for Test

Candidates for this test are patients with clinical findings consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension in the absence of conditions known to predispose to it.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
ACVRL1 601284
BMPR1B 603248
BMPR2 600799
CAV1 601047
EIF2AK4 609280
ENG 131195
GDF2 605120
KCNA5 176267
KCNK3 603220
SMAD9 603295
TBX4 601719
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Related Tests

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)/Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease, and Capillary Malformation-Arteriovenous Malformation Syndrome (CM)-AVM Panel
Small Patella Syndrome via the TBX4 Gene


  • Cogan et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16728714
  • Dewachter et al. 2009. PubMed ID: 19324947
  • Fujiwara et al. 2008. PubMed ID: 18159113
  • Gaine and Rubin. 1998. PubMed ID: 9729004
  • Girerd et al. 2010. PubMed ID: 20056902
  • Gräf et al. 2018. PubMed ID: 29650961
  • Hadinnapola et al. 2017. PubMed ID: 28972005
  • Larkin et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22923661
  • Rich et al. 1987. PubMed ID: 3605900
  • Southgate et al. 2019. PubMed ID: 31406341
  • Thomson et al. 2000. PubMed ID: 11015450
  • Wang et al. 2014. PubMed ID: 25401122


Ordering Options

We offer several options when ordering sequencing tests. For more information on these options, see our Ordering Instructions page. To view available options, click on the Order Options button within the test description.

myPrevent - Online Ordering

  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • PGnome sequencing panels can be ordered via the myPrevent portal only at this time.

Requisition Form

  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

For Requisition Forms, visit our Forms page

If ordering a Duo or Trio test, the proband and all comparator samples are required to initiate testing. If we do not receive all required samples for the test ordered within 21 days, we will convert the order to the most effective testing strategy with the samples available. Prior authorization and/or billing in place may be impacted by a change in test code.

Specimen Types

Specimen Requirements and Shipping Details

PGxome (Exome) Sequencing Panel

PGnome (Genome) Sequencing Panel

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2) Select Additional Test Options

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Note: acceptable specimen types are whole blood and DNA from whole blood only.
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