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Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type II via the WNK1 Gene

Summary and Pricing

Test Method

Exome Sequencing with CNV Detection
Test Code Test Copy GenesTest CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes Base Price
WNK1 81479 81479,81479 $990
Test Code Test Copy Genes Test CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Code Base Price
11809WNK181479 81479,81479 $990 Order Options and Pricing

Pricing Comments

Our favored testing approach is exome based NextGen sequencing with CNV analysis. This will allow cost effective reflexing to PGxome or other exome based tests. However, if full gene Sanger sequencing is desired for STAT turnaround time, insurance, or other reasons, please see link below for Test Code, pricing, and turnaround time information. If the Sanger option is selected, CNV detection may be ordered through Test #600.

An additional 25% charge will be applied to STAT orders. STAT orders are prioritized throughout the testing process.

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGxome (if original test is on PGxome Sequencing platform).

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGnome (if original test is on PGnome Sequencing platform).

The Sanger Sequencing method for this test is NY State approved.

For Sanger Sequencing click here.

Turnaround Time

3 weeks on average for standard orders or 2 weeks on average for STAT orders.

Please note: Once the testing process begins, an Estimated Report Date (ERD) range will be displayed in the portal. This is the most accurate prediction of when your report will be complete and may differ from the average TAT published on our website. About 85% of our tests will be reported within or before the ERD range. We will notify you of significant delays or holds which will impact the ERD. Learn more about turnaround times here.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, go to our Targeted Variants page.


Genetic Counselors


  • Angela Gruber, PhD

Clinical Features and Genetics

Clinical Features

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a rare monogenic disorder of renal electrolyte handling characterized by hypertension (due to increased renal salt reabsorption), hyperkalaemia (due to reduced renal K+ excretion, despite normal glomerular filtration and aldosterone secretion) and metabolic acidosis (due to reduced renal H+ secretion) (Wilson et al. 2001; Boyden et al. 2012). PHAII has a range of disease severity and age at disease onset. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type IIC (OMIM# 614492) is caused by defects in WNK1 which encodes one of the WNK kinases. WNK1-related PHAII develops at an average age in the thirties. WNK kinases-related PHAII represents the less severe end of disease severity compared with those caused by mutations in KLHL3 and CUL3.


Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) can be inherited in an autosomal dominant or recessive manner and has been associated with defects in four genes (WNK1, WNK4, KLHL3 and CUL3) (Wilson et al. 2001; Boyden et al. 2012). In particular, pseudohypoaldosteronism type IIC (PHA2C) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the WNK1 gene. WNK1 has 28 coding exons that encode a serine-threonine protein kinase, which is a key regulator of blood pressure. To date, all documented PHAII-related WNK1 mutations are large deletions in intron 1 that led to an overexpression of the gene (Wilson et al. 2001).

Clinical Sensitivity - Sequencing with CNV PGxome

The only documented PHAII-causing WNK1 pathogenic variants to date are large deletions in intron 1 (Wilson et al. 2001; Boyden et al. 2012).

Testing Strategy

This test provides full coverage of all coding exons of the WNK1 gene plus 10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA in all available transcripts along with other non-coding regions in which pathogenic variants have been identified at PreventionGenetics or reported elsewhere. We define full coverage as >20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing. PGnome panels typically provide slightly increased coverage over the PGxome equivalent. PGnome sequencing panels have the added benefit of additional analysis and reporting of deep intronic regions (where applicable).

Dependent on the sequencing backbone selected for this testing, discounted reflex testing to any other similar backbone-based test is available (i.e., PGxome panel to whole PGxome; PGnome panel to whole PGnome).

Indications for Test

Candidates for this test are patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Testing is also indicated for family members of patients who have known WNK1 mutations.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
WNK1 605232
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT


Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Pseudohypoaldosteronism, type IIC AD 614492


  • Boyden LM, Choi M, Choate KA, Nelson-Williams CJ, Farhi A, Toka HR, Tikhonova IR, Bjornson R, Mane SM, Colussi G, Lebel M, Gordon RD, et al. 2012. Mutations in kelch-like 3 and cullin 3 cause hypertension and electrolyte abnormalities. Nature 482: 98-102. PubMed ID: 22266938
  • Wilson FH, Disse-Nicodème S, Choate KA, Ishikawa K, Nelson-Williams C, Desitter I, Gunel M, Milford DV, Lipkin GW, Achard JM, Feely MP, Dussol B, et al. 2001. Human hypertension caused by mutations in WNK kinases. Science 293: 1107-1112. PubMed ID: 11498583


Ordering Options

We offer several options when ordering sequencing tests. For more information on these options, see our Ordering Instructions page. To view available options, click on the Order Options button within the test description.

myPrevent - Online Ordering

  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • PGnome sequencing panels can be ordered via the myPrevent portal only at this time.

Requisition Form

  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

For Requisition Forms, visit our Forms page

If ordering a Duo or Trio test, the proband and all comparator samples are required to initiate testing. If we do not receive all required samples for the test ordered within 21 days, we will convert the order to the most effective testing strategy with the samples available. Prior authorization and/or billing in place may be impacted by a change in test code.

Specimen Types

Specimen Requirements and Shipping Details

PGxome (Exome) Sequencing Panel

PGnome (Genome) Sequencing Panel

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View Ordering Instructions

1) Select Test Method (Platform)

1) Select Test Type

2) Select Additional Test Options

No Additional Test Options are available for this test.

Note: acceptable specimen types are whole blood and DNA from whole blood only.
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