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Dementia, Plus APOE Panel

Summary and Pricing

Test Method

Exome Sequencing with CNV Detection
Test Code Test Copy Genes Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
APOE 81479,81479
APP 81406,81479
C9orf72 81479,81479
CHCHD10 81479,81479
CHMP2B 81479,81479
CSF1R 81479,81479
DCTN1 81479,81479
FUS 81406,81479
GRN 81406,81479
ITM2B 81479,81479
MAPT 81406,81479
PSEN1 81405,81479
PSEN2 81406,81479
SQSTM1 81479,81479
TARDBP 81405,81479
TBK1 81479,81479
TREM2 81479,81479
UBQLN2 81479,81479
VCP 81479,81479
Test Code Test Copy Genes Panel CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Code Base Price
15779Genes x (19)81479 81405(x2), 81406(x5), 81479(x31) $990 Order Options and Pricing

Pricing Comments

$350 for C9orf72 repeat expansion only (see test #151).

We are happy to accommodate requests for testing single genes in this panel or a subset of these genes. The price will remain the list price. If desired, free reflex testing to remaining genes on panel is available. Alternatively, a single gene or subset of genes can also be ordered via our Custom Panel tool.

We only report the following APOE genotypes: E4/E4, E4/E2 and E4/E3.

An additional 25% charge will be applied to STAT orders. STAT orders are prioritized throughout the testing process.

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGxome (if original test is on PGxome Sequencing platform).

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGnome (if original test is on PGnome Sequencing platform).

Turnaround Time

C9orf72 assays completed within 2 weeks on average for standard orders. Reflexive panels are completed within an additional 4 weeks on average for standard orders.

Please note: Once the testing process begins, an Estimated Report Date (ERD) range will be displayed in the portal. This is the most accurate prediction of when your report will be complete and may differ from the average TAT published on our website. About 85% of our tests will be reported within or before the ERD range. We will notify you of significant delays or holds which will impact the ERD. Learn more about turnaround times here.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, go to our Targeted Variants page.


Genetic Counselors


  • Sali Farhan, PhD

Clinical Features and Genetics

Clinical Features

Dementia is characterized by cognitive and behavioral decline. It is caused by a progressive degeneration and atrophy of various regions of the brain. Progressive dementia is common in several neurodegenerative syndromes in adults. The most prevalent forms are Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (Wu et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22728850; Onyike and Diehl-Schmid 2013. PubMed ID: 23611343). Although there is a considerable phenotypic overlap between AD and FTD, several distinguishing features exist.

AD may be distinguished by a later age of onset and slower progression compared to FTD. In addition, memory loss and visual and spatial abnormalities are the chief complaints in AD; while behavioral abnormalities are the main features in FTD. Patients with FTD often develop motor abnormalities, which are rare in patients with AD (Harciarek and Jodzia. 2005. PubMed ID: 16328732).

Based on the age of onset of symptoms, AD is conventionally classified in two types: early-onset AD when symptoms begin before the age of 65 years, and late-onset AD when symptoms begin after the age of 65 years. Age of onset may differ among affected relatives (Brickell et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16966510). Gross cortical atrophy accompanied by aggregation of beta-amyloid protein in the form of plaques and tangles are hallmark features of the disease (Blennow et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16876668). The dysfunction of the affected areas of the brain results in gradual deterioration of memory that affects language, personality, and cognitive control. Symptoms include irritability, aggression, confusion and mood changes. As the disease progresses, additional symptoms develop and include sleep disturbances, loss of language skills, depression, and withdrawal. Eventually, patients do not recognize the faces of close family members and lose the ability to perform routine tasks independently (Bäckman et al. 2004. PubMed ID: 15324363).

FTD, previously referred to as Pick’s disease, is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome due to the progressive degeneration and atrophy of various regions of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Frontal temporal dementias account for about 10% of all dementias. Symptoms are insidious and begin usually during the fourth and sixth decades of life; although earlier and later onsets have been documented (Snowden et al. 2002. PubMed ID: 11823324; Bruni et al. 2007. PubMed ID: 17620546). The annual incidence of FTD is 3-4 per 100,000 (Onyike and Diehl-Schmid 2013. PubMed ID: 23611343).

Two major forms, the behavioral-variant (FTD-bv) and the primary progressive aphasia (PPA), are recognized based on the site of onset of degeneration and the associated symptoms. FTD-bv comprises about half of FTD cases with the degenerative process beginning in the frontal lobes and resulting in personality changes and deterioration of social conducts. Most common behavioral changes are: disinhibition, apathy, deterioration of executive function, obsessive thoughts, compulsive behavior, and neglect of personal hygiene (Rascovsky et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 21810890). PPA is a language disorder that is further divided into two sub-forms: progressive nonfluent PPA and semantic variant PPA. Nonfluent PPA is characterized by difficulty in verbal communications, word retrieval, and speech distortion. Reading, writing and spelling are also affected; while memory is relatively preserved. Semantic variant PPA is characterized by the progressive impairment of word comprehension, object and face recognition, and loss of semantic memory. Reading and writing skills are relatively preserved (Gustafson. 1993. PubMed ID: 8401782).


Early-onset AD accounts for less than 2% of AD cases and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In late-onset AD, disease and genetic etiology is unclear. Highly penetrant pathogenic variants in the PSEN1, APP, and PSEN2 genes account for up to 70%, 15% and 5% of early-onset AD cases (Bird. 2018. PubMed ID: 20301340). The majority of pathogenic variants in the PSEN1 gene are missense changes; however loss of function variants, including gross deletions, have been reported in a few cases (Evin et al. 2002. PubMed ID: 11997713). The c.839A>C (p.Glu280Ala) and c.617G>C (p.Gly206Ala) changes have been previously described as founder variants in Columbian and Caribbean Hispanics, respectively (Lalli et al. 2014. PubMed ID: 24239249; Lee et al. 2014. PubMed ID: 25333068). Missense changes in exons 16 and 17 resulting in disruption of APP processing into mature amyloid-beta protein represent ~60% of pathogenic variants in the APP gene whereas gross duplications of the APP gene account for about ~30% cases (Wallon et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22475797; Rovelet-Lecrux et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16369530). Missense changes primarily in exons 6 and 8 are the account for over half of the pathogenic variants found in the PSEN2 gene. The c.422A>T (p.Asn141Ile) change has been reported as a founder variant in Germany (Yu et al. 2010. PubMed ID: 20457965).

FTDs are inherited in 30-50% of cases in an autosomal dominant manner with pathogenic variants in C9orf72, MAPT and GRN accounting for about 30%, 15% and 25% of these cases respectively. An expansion of a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in an intron 1 non-coding region of the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of FTD. Greater than 30 hexanucleotide repeats is considered pathogenic whereas less than 25 repeats is considered benign (Majounie et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22406228; van der Zee et al. 2013. PubMed ID: 23111906). Missense changes in exons 2 and 9-13 are the most common pathogenic variants in the MAPT gene. However, spice site alterations, gross duplications and inframe deletions/insertions have also been reported (Goldman and Van Deerlin et al. 2018. PubMed ID: 29971646). Several different types of pathogenic variants including missense, nonsense, splicing and small insertions/deletions have been reported throughout the GRN gene. Gross deletions account for ~1.5% GRN-FTD cases (Hsiung and Feldman. 2020. PubMed ID: 20301545).

Pathogenic variants in the CHCHD10, CHMP2B, CSF1R, FUS, ITM2B, SQSTM1, TARDBP, TBK1, TREM2 and VCP genes have also been associated with autosomal dominant ALS but represent less than 5% of cases (Goldman and Van Deerlin et al. 2018. PubMed ID: 29971646). Pathogenic variants in the UBQLN2 gene are associated with X-linked disease (Siddique and Siddique. 2019. PubMed ID: 20301623). Pathogenic variants in the DCTN1 gene are associated with autosomal dominant Perry syndrome.

APOE is a susceptibility gene for late onset Alzheimer's disease. In particular, the E4 allele is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Note, however, that APOE genotyping is not fully specific or sensitive. APOE is just one of many risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (Desikan et al. 2017. PubMed ID: 28323831). Many individuals with the APOE E4/E4 genotype do not develop Alzheimer's disease during their lifetimes (Goldman et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 21577118; Bird. 2018. PubMed ID:20301340). Of note, several recent notable studies investigated APOE E4 effect on pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies (for example Koutsodendris and Rao. 2022. PubMed ID: 34460318; Raulin et al. 2022. PubMed ID: 36348357). 

See individual gene summaries for more information about molecular biology of gene products and spectra of pathogenic variants. 

Clinical Sensitivity - Sequencing with CNV PGxome

In ~95% of early onset AD cases, pathogenic variants in the PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP genes are detected (Bird. 2018. PubMed ID: 20301340). In familial FTD cases, pathogenic variants are identified in up to 65% of total cases with C9orf72, MAPT, and GRN accounting for about 75% of the positive cases (Goldman and Van Deerlin et al. 2018. PubMed ID: 29971646). The majority of genes in this panel have no or very few large deletions/duplications.

Testing Strategy

The C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion test will be performed first as this is the most common cause of ALS and FTD. If C9orf72 testing is negative then the sequencing panel will be performed. Results for the C9orf72 repeat expansion and sequencing panel will be reported separately. Concurrent testing is available upon request.

The C9orf72 repeat expansion tests each utilize four unique assays: (1) a repeat primed PCR assay with the locus specific primer 5’ (upstream) of the repeat region (2) a repeat primed PCR assay with the locus specific primer 3’ (downstream) of the repeat region and (3,4) two unique fluorescent fragment length assays.

The sequencing panel typically provides 98.2% coverage of all coding exons of the genes listed plus 10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA in all available transcripts along with other non-coding regions in which pathogenic variants have been identified at PreventionGenetics or reported elsewhere. We define coverage as ≥20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing. PGnome panels typically provide slightly increased coverage over the PGxome equivalent. PGnome sequencing panels have the added benefit of additional analysis and reporting of deep intronic regions (where applicable).

Dependent on the sequencing backbone selected for this testing, discounted reflex testing to any other similar backbone-based test is available (i.e., PGxome panel to whole PGxome; PGnome panel to whole PGnome).

Indications for Test

Candidates for AD testing include patients presenting with early-onset disease, a positive family history, and cardinal symptoms including memory impairment, impaired executive function and behavioral and/or psychological symptoms (Bird. 2018. PubMed ID: 20301340).

The International Behavioral Variant FTD Criteria Consortium (FTDC) defines diagnosis for bvFTD as patients that present with three of the six clinical features: disinhibition, apathy, loss of sympathy, compulsive behaviors, hyperorality, and/or dysexecutive neuropsychologic profile. Diagnosis for PPA includes language deficits as the primary cause of impaired living and aphasia being most prominent at symptom onset.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
APOE 107741
APP 104760
C9orf72 614260
CHCHD10 615903
CHMP2B 609512
CSF1R 164770
DCTN1 601143
FUS 137070
GRN 138945
ITM2B 603904
MAPT 157140
PSEN1 104311
PSEN2 600759
SQSTM1 601530
TARDBP 605078
TBK1 604834
TREM2 605086
UBQLN2 300264
VCP 601023
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT


Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Age-Related Macular Degeneration 1 AD 603075
Alzheimer's Disease AD 104300
Alzheimer's Disease, Type 2 AD 104310
Alzheimer's Disease, Type 3 AD 607822
Alzheimer's Disease, Type 4 AD 606889
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 1 AD 105400
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 10 XL 612069
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 15 XL 300857
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 17 AD 614696
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 6 AD 608030
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis AR 618476
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Type 2Y AD 616687
CHMP2B-Related Frontotemporal Dementia AD 600795
Dementia Familial British AD 176500
Dementia, Familial Danish AD 117300
Frontotemporal Dementia AD 600274
Frontotemporal Dementia And/Or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis AD 105550
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 AD 615911
Frontotemporal Dementia and/or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 3 AD 616437
Frontotemporal Dementia and/or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 4 AD 616439
Frontotemporal Dementia, Ubiquitin-Positive AD 607485
Hyperlipoproteinemia, Type III 617347
Inclusion Body Myopathy With Early-Onset Paget Disease And Frontotemporal Dementia AD 167320
Leukoencephalopathy, Diffuse Hereditary, with Spheroids AD 221820
Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy 611771
Neuronopathy, Distal Hereditary Motor, Type VIIB AD 607641
Paget Disease of Bone 3 AD 167250
Perry Syndrome AD 168605
Pick's Disease 172700
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 2 AD 618193
Retinal Dystrophy with Inner Retinal Dysfunction and Ganglion Cell Abnormalities AD 616079
Sea-Blue Histiocyte Syndrome AR 269600

Related Test

Alzheimer's Disease, Familial, Panel


  • Bäckman et al. 2004. PubMed ID: 15324363
  • Bird. 2018. PubMed ID: 20301340
  • Blennow et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16876668
  • Brickell et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16966510
  • Bruni et al. 2007. PubMed ID: 17620546
  • Desikan et al. 2017. PubMed ID: 28323831
  • Evin et al. 2002. PubMed ID: 11997713
  • Goldman and Van Deerlin 2018. PubMed ID: 29971646
  • Goldman et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 21577118
  • Gustafson L. 1993. PubMed ID: 8401782
  • Harciarek and Jodzio. 2005. PubMed ID: 16328732
  • Hsiung and Feldman, 2020. PubMed ID: 20301545
  • Koutsodendris and Rao. 2022. PubMed ID: 34460318
  • Lalli et al. 2014. PubMed ID: 24239249
  • Lee et al. 2014. PubMed ID: 25333068
  • Majounie et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22406228
  • Onyike and Diehl-Schmid. 2013. PubMed ID: 23611343
  • Rascovsky et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 21810890
  • Raulin et al. 2022. PubMed ID: 36348357
  • Rovelet-Lecrux et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16369530
  • Siddique and Siddique. 2019. PubMed ID: 20301623
  • Snowden et al. 2002. PubMed ID: 11823324
  • van der Zee et al. 2013. PubMed ID: 23111906
  • Wallon et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22475797
  • Wu et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22728850
  • Yu et al. 2010. PubMed ID: 20457965


Ordering Options

We offer several options when ordering sequencing tests. For more information on these options, see our Ordering Instructions page. To view available options, click on the Order Options button within the test description.

myPrevent - Online Ordering

  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • PGnome sequencing panels can be ordered via the myPrevent portal only at this time.

Requisition Form

  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

For Requisition Forms, visit our Forms page

If ordering a Duo or Trio test, the proband and all comparator samples are required to initiate testing. If we do not receive all required samples for the test ordered within 21 days, we will convert the order to the most effective testing strategy with the samples available. Prior authorization and/or billing in place may be impacted by a change in test code.

Specimen Types

Specimen Requirements and Shipping Details

PGxome (Exome) Sequencing Panel

PGnome (Genome) Sequencing Panel

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