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Congenital Cataracts and Ayme-Gripp Syndrome via the MAF Gene

Summary and Pricing

Test Method

Exome Sequencing with CNV Detection
Test Code Test Copy GenesTest CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes Base Price
3925 MAF 81479 81479,81479 $890 Order Options and Pricing
Test Code Test Copy Genes Test CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Code Base Price
3925MAF81479 81479,81479 $890 Order Options and Pricing

Pricing Comments

Our favored testing approach is exome based NextGen sequencing with CNV analysis. This will allow cost effective reflexing to PGxome or other exome based tests. However, if full gene Sanger sequencing is desired for STAT turnaround time, insurance, or other reasons, please see link below for Test Code, pricing, and turnaround time information.

An additional 25% charge will be applied to STAT orders. STAT orders are prioritized throughout the testing process.

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGxome (if original test is on PGxome Sequencing backbone).

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGnome (if original test is on PGnome Sequencing backbone).

The Sanger Sequencing method for this test is NY State approved.

For Sanger Sequencing click here.

Turnaround Time

18 days on average for standard orders or 13 days on average for STAT orders.

Please note: Once the testing process begins, an Estimated Report Date (ERD) range will be displayed in the portal. This is the most accurate prediction of when your report will be complete and may differ from the average TAT published on our website. About 85% of our tests will be reported within or before the ERD range. We will notify you of significant delays or holds which will impact the ERD. Learn more about turnaround times here.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, go to our Targeted Variants page.

EMAIL CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors

Geneticist

  • Jamie Fox, PhD

Clinical Features and Genetics

Clinical Features

Cataracts are described as opacification of the crystalline lens of the eye that result in abnormal refraction index and light scattering. Congenital cataracts (CC) are a serious and leading cause of reversible blindness in childhood. They account for one-tenth of the cases of childhood blindness (Francis and Moore 2004). Estimated prevalence rate is 1.2 - 6.0 per 10,000 live births. Early diagnosis and surgery and optical correction have resulted in an improved outcome for infants with either unilateral or bilateral cataracts (Lambert and Drack 1996).  Ayme-Gripp syndrome is not limited to eye lens defects, and includes deafness, intellectual disability, seizures, Down syndrome-like facies, short stature, and mental retardation (Niceta et al. 2015).

Genetics

Only 10–25% of congenital cataracts are hereditary. Cataracts are most often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Congenital cataracts also exhibit autosomal recessive or X-linked inheritance (Hejtmancik 2008). X-linked cataract is seen in Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS), which is an especially rare disorder. NHS has cataracts along with prominent dental findings, dysmorphic features, and intellectual disability (Toutain et al. 1997; Stambolian et al. 1990). Currently, isolated or primary cataracts have been mapped to about 39 genetic loci, and over 25 of those are connected to pathogenic variants in specific genes. However, this number is constantly increasing (Hejtmancik 2008).

Pathogenic variants in MAF are causative for autosomal dominant syndromic and nonsyndromic cataracts (Niceta et al. 2015; Jamieson et al. 2002). MAF is a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, which is expressed in vertebrate lens fiber cells and persists throughout lens development. MAF proteins have N-terminal transactivation domain, C-terminal DNA-binding domain, extended homology, basicmotif and leucine-zipper regions (Jamieson et al. 2002; Kawauchi et al. 1999). So far missense variants and one complex genomic rearrangement have been shown to be causative for both syndromic and nonsyndromic cataracts (Human Gene Mutation Database). De novo heterozygous missense variants affecting highly conserved residues of the gsk3 (serine/threonine kinase) phosphorylation motifs within the transactivation domain are shown to cause Ayme´-Gripp Syndrome (Niceta et al. 2015).

Clinical Sensitivity - Sequencing with CNV PGxome

Predicting clinical sensitivity for the MAF gene is challenging due to genetic heterogeneity of cataracts and also due to the limited number of MAF-associated cataract cases. Ayme-Gripp syndrome is a rare disorder. Hence, predicting the clinical sensitivity is difficult. However, in one study, seven de novo MAF variants were identified in 8 unrelated patients diagnosed with the Ayme-Gripp syndrome (Niceta et al. 2015).

Testing Strategy

This test provides full coverage of all coding exons of the MAF gene plus 10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA in all available transcripts along with other non-coding regions in which pathogenic variants have been identified at PreventionGenetics or reported elsewhere. We define full coverage as >20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing. PGnome panels typically provide slightly increased coverage over the PGxome equivalent. PGnome sequencing panels have the added benefit of additional analysis and reporting of deep intronic regions (where applicable).

Dependent on the sequencing backbone selected for this testing, discounted reflex testing to any other similar backbone-based test is available (i.e., PGxome panel to whole PGxome; PGnome panel to whole PGnome).

Indications for Test

All patients with symptoms suggestive of Congenital Cataracts and Ayme-Gripp syndrome are candidates.

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
MAF 177075
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Diseases

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Ayme-Gripp Syndrome AD 601088
Cataract 21 AD 610202

Citations

  • Francis P.J., Moore A.T. 2004. Current opinion in ophthalmology. 15: 10-5. PubMed ID: 14743013
  • Hejtmancik J.F. 2008. Seminars in cell & developmental biology. 19: 134-49. PubMed ID: 18035564
  • Human Gene Mutation Database (Bio-base).
  • Jamieson R.V. et al. 2002. Human Molecular Genetics. 11: 33-42.  PubMed ID: 11772997
  • Kawauchi S. et al. 1999. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274: 19254-60.  PubMed ID: 10383433
  • Lambert S.R., Drack A.V. 1996. Survey of ophthalmology. 40: 427-58. PubMed ID: 8724637
  • Niceta M. et al. 2015. American Journal of Human Genetics. 96: 816-25.  PubMed ID: 25865493
  • Stambolian D. et al. 1990. American journal of human genetics. 47: 13-9. PubMed ID: 1971992
  • Toutain A. et al. 1997. Human genetics. 99: 256-61. PubMed ID: 9048931

Ordering/Specimens

Ordering Options

We offer several options when ordering sequencing tests. For more information on these options, see our Ordering Instructions page. To view available options, click on the Order Options button within the test description.

myPrevent - Online Ordering

  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • PGnome sequencing panels can be ordered via the myPrevent portal only at this time.

Requisition Form

  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

For Requisition Forms, visit our Forms page


Specimen Types

Specimen Requirements and Shipping Details

PGxome (Exome) Sequencing Panel

PGnome (Genome) Sequencing Panel

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ORDER OPTIONS

View Ordering Instructions

1) Select Test Method (Backbone)


1) Select Test Type


2) Select Additional Test Options

STAT and Prenatal Test Options are not available with Patient Plus.

No Additional Test Options are available for this test.

Note: acceptable specimen types are whole blood and DNA from whole blood only.
Total Price: $
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