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Benign Flecked Retina Disorder via the PLA2G5 Gene

Summary and Pricing

Test Method

Exome Sequencing with CNV Detection
Test Code Test Copy GenesTest CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes Base Price
PLA2G5 81479 81479,81479 $990
Test Code Test Copy Genes Test CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Code Base Price
8839PLA2G581479 81479,81479 $990 Order Options and Pricing

Pricing Comments

Our favored testing approach is exome based NextGen sequencing with CNV analysis. This will allow cost effective reflexing to PGxome or other exome based tests. However, if full gene Sanger sequencing is desired for STAT turnaround time, insurance, or other reasons, please see link below for Test Code, pricing, and turnaround time information.

An additional 25% charge will be applied to STAT orders. STAT orders are prioritized throughout the testing process.

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGxome (if original test is on PGxome Sequencing platform).

Click here for costs to reflex to whole PGnome (if original test is on PGnome Sequencing platform).

The Sanger Sequencing method for this test is NY State approved.

For Sanger Sequencing click here.

Turnaround Time

3 weeks on average for standard orders or 2 weeks on average for STAT orders.

Please note: Once the testing process begins, an Estimated Report Date (ERD) range will be displayed in the portal. This is the most accurate prediction of when your report will be complete and may differ from the average TAT published on our website. About 85% of our tests will be reported within or before the ERD range. We will notify you of significant delays or holds which will impact the ERD. Learn more about turnaround times here.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, go to our Targeted Variants page.


Genetic Counselors


  • Dana Talsness, PhD

Clinical Features and Genetics

Clinical Features

Flecked retinal disorder is characterized by a distinctive retinal appearance with yellow-white, irregular fleck-like lesions with great variability in size, extending to the far periphery of the retina, but sparing the foveal region without vascular or optic nerve abnormalities. This condition is seen in a large variety of diseases. Some are limited to the eyes such as fundus albipunctatus, fundus flavimaculatus, familial drusen and fleck retina of Kandori, retinitis punctata albescens or Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, and neuro-ophthalmologic syndromes such as Kjellin's syndrome. These disorders differ in severity (De Laey. 1993. PubMed ID: 7952338). It is important to distinguish these types of flecks from each other for accurate diagnosis. Sabel Aish and Dajani summarized the different types of flecked retinal disorders (Sabel Aish and Dajani. 1980. PubMed ID: 7426586).

PLA2G5-associated benign fleck retina is characterized as widespread discrete yellow-white fleck lesions on the fundus extending to the far periphery, but sparing the macular region with normal visual acuity and normal electroretinogram (Isaacs et al. 1996. PubMed ID: 8703867).


Flecked retinal disorder (FRD) is heterogeneous as FRD is present in several retinal disorders with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and x-linked inheritance. Pathogenic variants in ABCA4, CHM, EFEMP1, ELOVL4, LRAT, PLA2G5, PROM1, PRPH2, RDH5, RHO, RLBP1, RS1, and VPS13B have been shown to cause retinal flecks (Sergouniotis et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 22137173; Hayashi et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16637847; Sparrow et al. 2015. PubMed ID: 26230768; Renner et al. 2009. PubMed ID: 19597113; Michaelides et al. 2003. PubMed ID: 12960208; Hipp et al. 2015. PubMed ID: 25429852; Littink et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22559933; Souied et al. 1996. PubMed ID: 8554077; Yang et al. 2008. PubMed ID: 18654668; Taban et al. 2007. PubMed ID: 17383910).

Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in PLA2G5 cause benign fleck retina (Sergouniotis et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 22137173). PLA2G5 encodes group V phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which is highly expressed in the eye and heart (Sergouniotis et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 22137173). PLA2 is reported to be involved in phospholipid digestion and metabolism, host defense, and signal transduction (Dennis. 1994. PubMed ID: 8175726). To date, ~5 causative variants (missense, nonsense and a small frameshift deletion) have been documented causative (Human Gene Mutation Database).

Clinical Sensitivity - Sequencing with CNV PGxome

Due to genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic overlap, the clinical sensitivity is unclear. So far, large deletions/duplications have not been documented in this gene (Human Gene Mutation Database).

Testing Strategy

This test provides full coverage of all coding exons of the PLA2G5 gene plus 10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA in all available transcripts along with other non-coding regions in which pathogenic variants have been identified at PreventionGenetics or reported elsewhere. We define full coverage as >20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing. PGnome panels typically provide slightly increased coverage over the PGxome equivalent. PGnome sequencing panels have the added benefit of additional analysis and reporting of deep intronic regions (where applicable).

Dependent on the sequencing backbone selected for this testing, discounted reflex testing to any other similar backbone-based test is available (i.e., PGxome panel to whole PGxome; PGnome panel to whole PGnome).

Indications for Test

All patients with symptoms suggestive of benign fleck retina are candidates. This test may also be considered for the reproductive partners of individuals who carry pathogenic variants in PLA2G5.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
PLA2G5 601192
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT


Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Fleck Retina, Familial Benign AR 228980

Related Tests

RHO-Related Disorders via the RHO Gene
RLBP1-Related Disorders via the RLBP1 Gene
Autosomal Dominant Stargardt disease (STGD3) via the ELOVL4 Gene
Flecked Retina Disorder Panel
Fundus Albipunctatus With or Without Cone Dystrophy via the RDH5 Gene
Leber Congenital Amaurosis 14 (LCA14) or Early Onset Retinal Dystrophy (EORD) and Juvenile Retinitis Pigmentosa via the LRAT Gene
Leber Congenital Amaurosis Panel
Malattia Leventinese and Doyne Honeycomb Retinal Dystrophy via the EFEMP1 Gene
Retinitis Pigmentosa Panel
Retinitis Pigmentosa via the PRPH2 (RDS) Gene


  • De Laey. 1993. PubMed ID: 7952338
  • Dennis. 1994. PubMed ID: 8175726
  • Hayashi et al. 2006. PubMed ID: 16637847
  • Hipp et al. 2015. PubMed ID: 25429852
  • Human Gene Mutation Database (Bio-base).
  • Isaacs et al. 1996. PubMed ID: 8703867
  • Littink et al. 2012. PubMed ID: 22559933
  • Michaelides et al. 2003. PubMed ID: 12960208
  • Renner et al. 2009. PubMed ID: 19597113
  • Sabel Aish and Dajani. 1980. PubMed ID: 7426586
  • Sergouniotis et al. 2011. PubMed ID: 22137173
  • Souied et al. 1996. PubMed ID: 8554077
  • Sparrow et al. 2015. PubMed ID: 26230768
  • Taban et al. 2007. PubMed ID: 17383910
  • Yang et al. 2008. PubMed ID: 18654668


Ordering Options

We offer several options when ordering sequencing tests. For more information on these options, see our Ordering Instructions page. To view available options, click on the Order Options button within the test description.

myPrevent - Online Ordering

  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • PGnome sequencing panels can be ordered via the myPrevent portal only at this time.

Requisition Form

  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

For Requisition Forms, visit our Forms page

If ordering a Duo or Trio test, the proband and all comparator samples are required to initiate testing. If we do not receive all required samples for the test ordered within 21 days, we will convert the order to the most effective testing strategy with the samples available. Prior authorization and/or billing in place may be impacted by a change in test code.

Specimen Types

Specimen Requirements and Shipping Details

PGxome (Exome) Sequencing Panel

PGnome (Genome) Sequencing Panel

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