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Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the MKKS/BBS6 Gene

Summary and Pricing

Test Method

Sequencing and CNV Detection via NextGen Sequencing using PG-Select Capture Probes
Test Code Test Copy GenesTest CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes Base Price
MKKS 81479 81479,81479 $990
Test Code Test Copy Genes Test CPT Code Gene CPT Codes Copy CPT Code Base Price
7741MKKS81479 81479,81479 $990 Order Options and Pricing

Pricing Comments

Testing run on PG-select capture probes includes CNV analysis for the gene(s) on the panel but does not permit the optional add on of exome-wide CNV analysis. Any of the NGS platforms allow reflex to other clinically relevant genes, up to whole exome or whole genome sequencing depending upon the base platform selected for the initial test.

An additional 25% charge will be applied to STAT orders. STAT orders are prioritized throughout the testing process.

This test is also offered via a custom panel (click here) on our exome or genome backbone which permits the optional add on of exome-wide CNV or genome-wide SV analysis.

Turnaround Time

3 weeks on average for standard orders or 2 weeks on average for STAT orders.

Please note: Once the testing process begins, an Estimated Report Date (ERD) range will be displayed in the portal. This is the most accurate prediction of when your report will be complete and may differ from the average TAT published on our website. About 85% of our tests will be reported within or before the ERD range. We will notify you of significant delays or holds which will impact the ERD. Learn more about turnaround times here.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, go to our Targeted Variants page.


Genetic Counselors


  • Marissa Cloutier, PhD

Clinical Features and Genetics

Clinical Features

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a pleiotropic disorder characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, post-axial polydactyly, cognitive impairment, hypogenitalism, and renal and cardiovascular anomalies (Green et al. N Engl J Med 321:1002-1009, 1989; Elbedour et al. Am J Med Genet 52:164-169, 1994). McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKKS) (OMIM# 236700) is characterized by hydrometrocolpos secondary to vaginal atresia and bilateral postaxial polydactyly (McKusick et al. JAMA 189:813-816, 1964). Both MKKS and Bardet- Biedl syndrome 6 (BBS6) (OMIM# 604896) are caused by variants in MKKS/BBS6 gene (Stone et al. Nat Genet 25:79-82, 2000; Slavotinek et al. Nat Genet 26:15-16, 2000; Katsanis et al. Nat Genet 26:67-70, 2000).


MKKS and BBS6 are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders; however, complex inheritance has been reported in a few BBS families (Katsanis et al. Science 293:2256-2259, 2001). MKKS/BBS6 encodes a chaperonin protein (MKKS/BBS6), which shows similarity to the alpha subunit of the Thermoplasma acidophilum thermosome chaperonin protein (Stone et al. Nat Genet 25:79-82, 2000). MKKS/BBS6 protein interacts with two other CCT/TRiC chaperonin like BBS proteins, BBS10 and BBS12, to form a chaperonin complex that mediates BBSome complex assembly (Seo et al. PNAS 107:1488-1493, 2010). A mix of missense, nonsense, splicing, and small deletion variants has been reported in MKKS/BBS6 (Slavotinek et al. Nat Genet 26:15-16, 2000; Katsanis et al. 2000). BBS exhibits locus heterogeneity; at least 12 BBS genes have been identified (BBS1, BBS2, BBS3, BBS4, BBS5, MKKS/BBS6, BBS7, TTC8/BBS8, BBS9, BBS10, TRIM32/BBS11, and BBS12) (Tobin and Beales, Genet Med 11:386-402, 2009). In addition, hypomorphic variants in two Meckel-Gruber syndrome genes (MKS1 and CEP290) were reported to be associated with BBS, representing BBS13 and BBS14 respectively (Leitch et al. Nat Genet 40:443-448, 2008).

Clinical Sensitivity - Sequencing with CNV PG-Select

Variants in the MKKS/BBS6 gene are estimated to cause approximately 6% of BBS cases (Katsanis et al. Hum Mol Genet 13 Spec No 1:R65-R71, 2004)

Testing Strategy

This test provides full coverage of all coding exons of the MKKS gene, plus ~10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA. We define full coverage as >20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing.

Indications for Test

Candidates for this test are patients with symptoms consistent with MKKS/BBS and the family members of patients who have known MKKS/BBS6 variants. Conclusive connections between clinical features and individual mutated BBS genes have not yet been made. This test may also be considered for the reproductive partners of individuals who carry pathogenic variants in MKKS.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
MKKS 604896
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT


Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 6 AR 605231
Mckusick Kaufman Syndrome AR 236700


  • Elbedour K, Zucker N, Zalzstein E, Barki Y, Carmi R. 1994. Cardiac abnormalities in the Bardet-Biedl syndrome: echocardiographic studies of 22 patients. Am. J. Med. Genet. 52: 164–169. PubMed ID: 7802002
  • Green JS, Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Farid NR, Cramer BC, Johnson G, Heath O, McManamon PJ, O’Leary E, Pryse-Phillips W. 1989. The cardinal manifestations of Bardet–Biedl syndrome, a form of Laurence–Moon–Biedl syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 321: 1002–1009. PubMed ID: 2779627
  • Katsanis N, Ansley SJ, Badano JL, Eichers ER, Lewis RA, Hoskins BE, Scambler PJ, Davidson WS, Beales PL, Lupski JR. 2001. Triallelic inheritance in Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a Mendelian recessive disorder. Science 293: 2256–2259. PubMed ID: 11567139
  • Katsanis N. 2004. The oligogenic properties of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics 13: 65R–71. PubMed ID: 14976158
  • Katsanis, N., et.al. (2000). "Mutations in MKKS cause obesity, retinal dystrophy and renal malformations associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome." Nat Genet 26(1): 67-70. PubMed ID: 10973251
  • Leitch CC, Zaghloul NA, Davis EE, Stoetzel C, Diaz-Font A, Rix S, Al-Fadhel M, Lewis RA, Eyaid W, Banin E, Dollfus H, Beales PL, et al. 2008. Hypomorphic mutations in syndromic encephalocele genes are associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Nature Genetics 40: 443–448. PubMed ID: 18327255
  • McKusick, V. A., et.al. (1964). "Hydrometrocolpos as a Simply Inherited Malformation." Jama 189: 813-6. PubMed ID: 14172277
  • Seo, S. et.al. (2010). "BBS6, BBS10, and BBS12 form a complex with CCT/TRiC family chaperonins and mediate BBSome assembly." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(4): 1488-1493. PubMed ID: 20080638
  • Slavotinek, A. M., et.al. (2000). "Mutations in MKKS cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome." Nat Genet 26(1): 15-6. PubMed ID: 10973238
  • Stone, D. L., et.al. (2000). "Mutation of a gene encoding a putative chaperonin causes McKusick-Kaufman syndrome." Nat Genet 25(1): 79-82. PubMed ID: 10802661
  • Tobin, J. L., Beales, P. L. (2009). "The nonmotile ciliopathies." Genet Med 11(6): 386-402. PubMed ID: 19421068


Ordering Options

We offer several options when ordering sequencing tests. For more information on these options, see our Ordering Instructions page. To view available options, click on the Order Options button within the test description.

myPrevent - Online Ordering

  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • PGnome sequencing panels can be ordered via the myPrevent portal only at this time.

Requisition Form

  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

For Requisition Forms, visit our Forms page

If ordering a Duo or Trio test, the proband and all comparator samples are required to initiate testing. If we do not receive all required samples for the test ordered within 21 days, we will convert the order to the most effective testing strategy with the samples available. Prior authorization and/or billing in place may be impacted by a change in test code.

Specimen Types

Specimen Requirements and Shipping Details

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Note: acceptable specimen types are whole blood and DNA from whole blood only.
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