Myofibrillar Myopathy Sequencing Panel

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits

NGS Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1357 ACTA1 81479 Add to Order
BAG3 81479
CRYAB 81479
DES 81405
DNAJB6 81479
FHL1 81404
FLNC 81479
LDB3 81406
LMNA 81406
MYOT 81405
Full Panel Price* $640.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
1357 Genes x (10) $640.00 81404, 81405(x2), 81406(x2), 81479(x5) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

We are happy to accommodate requests for single genes or a subset of these genes. The price will remain the list price. If desired, free reflex testing to remaining genes on panel is available. Alternatively, a single gene or subset of genes can also be ordered on our PGxome Custom Panel.

Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 20 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Approximately 50% of patients with myofibrillar myopathy are found to have pathogenic variants in one of the genes analyzed in this test (Selcen and Engel 2012). The relative occurrence of pathogenic variants in the Mayo Clinic Myofibrillar Myopathy cohort is LDB3 (11%), MYOT (9%), DES (7%), FLNC (3%), BAG3 (5%), CRYAB (3%), DNAJB6 (2%), and FHL1 (3%) (Selcen and Engel 2012). Analytical sensitivity is expected to be high as nearly all pathogenic gene variants for this disorder are detectable by this method.

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 ACTA1$990.00 81479 Add to Order
BAG3$990.00 81479
CRYAB$990.00 81479
DES$990.00 81479
DNAJB6$990.00 81479
FLNC$990.00 81479
LDB3$990.00 81479
LMNA$990.00 81479
MYOT$990.00 81479
Full Panel Price* $1290.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
600 Genes x (9) $1290.00 81479(x9) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

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Over 100

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Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 20 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Copy number variations are a rare form of pathogenic variation among the genes in this test panel. Therefore, clinical sensitivity is predicted to be low.

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Clinical Features

Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders sharing a homogeneous morphological pattern and, most often, onset of clinical symptoms in adulthood. Stained with trichome, abnormal muscle fibers are seen containing hyaline structures and vacuoles containing membrane fragments from disintegrated sarcomeric Z disc and myofibrils (Selcen et al. 2004). With electron microscopy, affected muscle fibers reveal progressive degeneration of myofibrils beginning at the Z-disk. Immunohistochemical staining of the structurally abnormal fibers reveals abnormal expression and accumulation of several proteins, including myotilin, desmin, alpha-B crystalline, dystrophin and β-amyloid precursor protein (Selcen et al. 2004). Clinically, patients present in adulthood with proximal and distal weakness and in some cases with cardiomyopathy. Unlike typical MFM, BAG3-associated MFM presents in childhood with markedly progressive limb and axial weakness, cardiomyopathy, respiratory insufficiency and variably elevated CpK levels (Selcen et al. 2009). Two different cases of ACTA1 causing pathologic features consistent with myofibrillar myopathy (Selcen 2015; Guglieri et al 2014) and one case of of LMNA causing myofibrillar abnormalities have been reported (D'Amico et al 2005). See Selcen and Engel (2012) for a comprehensive review of myofibrillar myopathy.


Myofibrillar myopathy due to pathogenic variants in the CRYAB, DES, DNAJB6, FLNC, MYOT, LDB3 and BAG3 genes is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder (Selcen and Engel 2012). Recessive inheritance of truncating CRYAB pathogenic variants cause a severe, infantile-onset rigid baby disorder (Dek Bigio et al. 2011). FHL1-related myopathies are inherited as X-linked dominant conditions. The rare cases of ACTA1 causing a myofibrillar myopathy were reported with both dominant and recessive inheritance (Selcen 2015; Guglieri et al 2014). LMNA-related myopathies can exhibit both dominant and recessive inheritance, with many dominant pathogenic variants occurring de novo. See individual gene test descriptions for information on molecular biology of gene products.

Testing Strategy

For this NextGen test, the full coding regions plus ~10 bp of non-coding DNA flanking each exon are sequenced for each of the genes listed below. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

This test will cover 100% of the coding exons in the indicated genes plus flanking regions.

Indications for Test

Patients with clinical features consistent with myofibrillar myopathy, typically with autosomal dominant inheritance, and a muscle biopsy with characteristic immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
ACTA1 102610
BAG3 603883
CRYAB 123590
DES 125660
DNAJB6 611332
FHL1 300163
FLNC 102565
LDB3 605906
LMNA 150330
MYOT 604103
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

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Genetic Counselors
  • D'Amico A. et al. 2005. Neuromuscular Disorders. 15: 847-50. PubMed ID: 16288872
  • Del Bigio M.R. et al. 2011. Annals of Neurology. 69: 866-71. PubMed ID: 21337604
  • Guglieri et al. 2014. Neuromuscular Disorders. A.P.6 24:832
  • Selcen D. 2004. Brain. 127: 439-51. PubMed ID: 14711882
  • Selcen D. 2015. Neuromuscular Disorders. 25: 488-92. PubMed ID: 25913210
  • Selcen D. et al. 2009. Annals of Neurology. 65: 83-9. PubMed ID: 19085932
  • Selcen D., Engel A.G. 2012. Myofibrillar Myopathy. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong C-T, and Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews™, Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PubMed ID: 20301672
Order Kits

NextGen Sequencing using PG-Select Capture Probes

Test Procedure

We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon.  As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes.  Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).  Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing.  All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions.  After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).

(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign, Common Variants

Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (  Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.

In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.   

Analytical Limitations

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available.  Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.  Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion.   In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele.  Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).

We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon.  Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants.  In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited.  Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood).   Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics.  However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

Deletion/Duplication Testing via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options

myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.


(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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