Forms

Noonan Syndrome via the RIT1 Gene

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
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TEST METHODS

Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1114 RIT1$680.00 81479 Add to Order
Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 18 days.

Clinical Sensitivity
Pathogenic variants in RIT1 were detected in  ~ 9% of NS patients without detectable pathogenic variants in the remaining Noonan-related genes (Aoki et al., 2013).

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Clinical Features
Noonan Syndrome (NS) is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by dysmorphic facial features; growth and congenital heart defects; and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Cardiac abnormalities are found in up to 80% of patients and include pulmonary valve stenosis, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Musculoskeletal abnormalities include short stature, chest deformity with sunken or raised sternum, and short webbed neck. Several additional abnormalities have been described and include renal, genital, hematological, neurologic, cognitive, behavioral, gastrointestinal, dental, and prenatal lymphatic abnormalities such as nuchal translucency, cystic hygroma, bilateral chylothorax, pleural effusion and polyhydramnios. Intelligence is usually normal; however, learning disabilities may be present. NS is characterized by an extensive clinical heterogeneity, even among members of the same family. Diagnosis is often made in infancy or early childhood. Symptoms often change and lessen with advancing age. Infants with NS are at risk of developing juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML OMIM 607785). The prevalence of NS is estimated at 1 in 1000 to 1 in 2,500 births worldwide (Allanson et al., 1985; Nisbet et al., 1999; van der Burgt, 2007; Romano et al., 2010).
Genetics
NS is caused by gain of function mutations in various genes within the RAS/MAPK pathway, including RIT1. Several RAS/MAPK genes (PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, SHOC2, BRAF, NRAS, MAP2K1 and CBL) have been involved in NS. Recently, nine different pathogenic missense variants in the RIT1 gene were reported in 17 patients affected with NS or a related disorder without detectable mutations in the remaining Noonan-related genes. Perinatal and neonatal abnormalities were found in nine patients and include polyhydramnios, nuchal translucency, placental abruption, pleural effusion, and chylothorax. Features characteristic of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS), including sparse and curly hair and a high cranial vault, were detected in two patients who were initially diagnosed with CFCS. The remaining patients have features characteristic of NS. Although pathogenic variants occurred apparently de novo in most cases where parental testing was performed, one patient inherited the variant from the affected mother (Aoki et al., 2013).

Somatic RIT1 mutations have been reported in several cancers (http://cancer.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic). Lymphoblastic leukemia occurred in one of the 17 patients described by Aoki et al.
Testing Strategy
This test involves bidirectional DNA sequencing of all coding exons and splice sites of RIT1. The full coding sequence of each exon plus ~ 20 bp of flanking DNA on either side are sequenced. We will also sequence any single exon (Test #100) in family members of patients with a known mutation or to confirm research results.
Indications for Test
Candidates for this test are patients with a clinical diagnosis of NS without PTPN11 or SOS1 mutations. Symptoms of NS patients overlap with those for Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous Syndrome (CFCS) and Costello Syndrome (CS) patients. NS patients who test negative for mutations in (PTPN11, SOS1, RIT1, RAF1, KRAS, SHOC2, BRAF, NRAS, CLB, and KAT6B may be candidates for CFCS (MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 genes) or CS (HRAS gene) testing. Conversely, CFCS or CS Syndrome patients who test negative for BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2 and KRAS genes or HRAS, respectively, may be candidates for all or a portion of our NS testing.

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
RIT1 609591
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Disease

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Noonan Syndrome 8 615355

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Allanson JE, Hall JG, Hughes HE, Preus M, Witt RD. 1985. Noonan syndrome: the changing phenotype. Am. J. Med. Genet. 21: 507-514. PubMed ID: 4025385
  • Aoki Y, Niihori T, Banjo T, Okamoto N, Mizuno S, Kurosawa K, Ogata T, Takada F, Yano M, Ando T, Hoshika T, Barnett C, Ohashi H, Kawame H, Hasegawa T, Okutani T, Nagashima T, Hasegawa S, Funayama R, Nagashima T, Nakayama K, Inoue S, Watanabe Y, Ogura T, Matsubara Y. 2013. Gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome, a RAS/MAPK pathway syndrome. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 93:173-180.
    PubMed ID: 23791108
  • COSMIC: Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Research Limited.
  • Nisbet DL, Griffin DR, Chitty LS. 1999. Prenatal features of Noonan syndrome. Prenat. Diagn. 19:642-647. PubMed ID: 10419612.
  • Romano AA, Allanson JE, Dahlgren J, Gelb BD, Hall B, Pierpont ME, Roberts AE, Robinson W, Takemoto CM, Noonan JA. 2010. Noonan syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, and management guidelines. Pediatrics 126: 746-759. PubMed ID: 20876176
  • van der Burgt I 2007. Noonan syndrome. Orphanet J. Rare Dis. 2:4. PubMed ID: 17222357
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TEST METHODS

Bi-Directional Sanger Sequencing

Test Procedure

Nomenclature for sequence variants was from the Human Genome Variation Society (http://www.hgvs.org).  As required, DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  PCR is used to amplify the indicated exons plus additional flanking non-coding sequence.  After cleaning of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  Products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In most cases, sequencing is performed in both forward and reverse directions; in some cases, sequencing is performed twice in either the forward or reverse directions.  In nearly all cases, the full coding region of each exon as well as 20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking the exon are sequenced.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, we compared 17.37 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 12 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 8,800 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was due to sequence analysis error.

Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger heterozygous insertions may not be detected. All homozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 300 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger homozygous insertions may masquerade as homozygous deletions (PCR failure).

Analytical Limitations

In exons where our sequencing did not reveal any variation between the two alleles, we cannot be certain that we were able to PCR amplify both of the patient’s alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due for example to a deletion or a large insertion. In these cases, the report contains no information about the second allele.

Similarly, our sequencing tests have almost no power to detect duplications, triplications, etc. of the gene sequences.

In most cases, only the indicated exons and roughly 20 bp of flanking non-coding sequence on each side are analyzed. Test reports contain little or no information about other portions of the gene, including many regulatory regions.

In nearly all cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants, due for example to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR and cycle sequencing.

Unless otherwise indicated, the sequence data that we report are based on DNA isolated from a specific tissue (usually leukocytes). Test reports contain no information about gene sequences in other tissues.

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Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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