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Long QT Syndrome via the KCNJ5 Gene

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
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TEST METHODS

Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1049 KCNJ5$580.00 81479 Add to Order
Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 18 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Up to 70 % of patients with a clinical diagnosis of Long QT syndrome have identifiable pathogenic variants (Beckmann et al. 2013). The majority of LQTS cases are caused by pathogenic variants in one of three genes: KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A. Pathogenic variants in the following genes: ANK2KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNJ2CACNA1C, CAV3SCN4BAKAP9, SNTA1 and KCNJ5 together cause about 5% of LQTS (Lieve et al. 2012; Kapplinger et al. 2009).

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 KCNJ5$690.00 81479 Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price

1

$690

2

$730

3

$770

4-10

$840

11-30

$1,290

31-100

$1,670

Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

To date, no gross deletions or duplications have been reported in KCNJ5 (Human Gene Mutation Database).

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Clinical Features

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heritable channelopathy characterized by an exceedingly prolonged cardiac repolarization that may trigger ventricular arrhythmias (torsade de pointes), recurrent syncopes, seizure, or sudden cardiac death (SCD)  (Cerrone et al. 2012). The incidence of LQTS has been estimated between 1 in 2500 and 1 in 7000 in the general population.  LQTS can manifest with syncope and cardiac arrest that is commonly triggered by adrenergic stress, often precipitated by emotion or exercise. Roughly 10% to 15% of patients experience symptoms at rest or during the night (Schwartz et al. 2001). The mean age of onset of symptoms is 12 years, and earlier onset usually is associated with a more severe form of the disease (Priori et al 2004). Inherited LQTS occurs due to mutations in multiple genes such as KCNQ1 (LQT1), KCNH2 (LQT2), SCN5A (LQT3), ANK2(LQT4), KCNE1 (LQT5), KCNE2 (LQT6), KCNJ2 (LQT7), CACNA1C (LQT8), CAV3 (LQT9), SCN4B (LQT10), AKAP9 (LQT11), SNTA1 (LQT12) and KCNJ5 (LQT13), but it can also be acquired (acquired LQTS), usually as a result of pharmacological therapy.  A small percentage of cases of LQTS occur in people who have an underlying pathogenic variant in the KCNJ5 gene.

Genetics

Long QT syndrome type 13 (LQT13) is caused by loss-of-function mutation in KCNJ5 and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The protein encoded by KCNJ5 is an integral membrane protein, inward-rectifier type potassium channel and is controlled by G-proteins (Yang et al. 2010). Neuronal and cardiac G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (Girk) channels are homo- and hetero-tetrameric complexes formed by subunits encoded by four genes named Girk1–4 /Kir3.1–4/KCNJ3, KCNJ6, KCNJ9 and KCNJ5. Cardiac IKACh channels are complexes consisting of Girk1 (KCNJ3) and Girk4 (KCNJ5) (Wickman et al. 1999). IKACh channels are predominantly expressed in the sinoatrial node, atria, and atrioventricular node.  Biochemical and genetic studies have demonstrated that IKACh plays an important role in both parasympathetic slowing of the heart rate and repolarization of atrial action potentials (Mesirca et al. 2013). Besides Long QT syndrome, pathogenic variants in KCNJ5 also cause Familial Hyperaldosteronism (Human Gene Mutation Database). To date, all reported pathogenic variants are missense variants.

Testing Strategy

This test involves bidirectional Sanger DNA sequencing of all coding exons and splice sites of the KCNJ5 gene. The full coding sequence of each exon plus ~ 20 bp of flanking DNA on either side are sequenced. We will also sequence any single exon (Test #100) in family members of patients with a known mutation or to confirm research results.

Indications for Test

All patients with symptoms suggestive of Long QT syndrome are candidates for this test.

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
KCNJ5 600734
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Disease

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Long QT Syndrome 13 613485

Related Tests

Name
Andersen-Tawil Syndrome/Long QT Syndrome via the KCNJ2 Gene
Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia and Long QT Syndrome via the CALM1 Gene
Long QT Syndrome and Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome via the KCNE1 Gene
Long QT Syndrome and Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome via the KCNQ1 Gene
Long QT Syndrome Sequencing Panel
Long QT Syndrome via the ANK2 Gene
Long QT Syndrome via the KCNE2 Gene
Long QT Syndrome via the KCNH2 Gene
Long QT Syndrome via the SCN4B Gene
Long QT syndrome via the SNTA1 Gene
Long QT Syndrome via the AKAP9 Gene
Long QT Syndrome via the CALM2 Gene

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Beckmann B-M, Wilde AAM, Kääb S. 2013. Clinical utility gene card for: long-QT syndrome (types 1-13). Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 21: PubMed ID: 23511927
  • Cerrone M. et al. 2012. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics. 5: 581-90. PubMed ID: 23074337
  • Human Gene Mutation Database (Bio-base).
  • Kapplinger JD, Tester DJ, Salisbury BA, Carr JL, Harris-Kerr C, Pollevick GD, Wilde AAM, Ackerman MJ. 2009. Spectrum and prevalence of mutations from the first 2,500 consecutive unrelated patients referred for the FAMILION long QT syndrome genetic test. Heart Rhythm 6: 1297–1303. PubMed ID: 19716085
  • Lieve KV, Williams L, Daly A, Richard G, Bale S, Macaya D, Chung WK. 2013. Results of genetic testing in 855 consecutive unrelated patients referred for long QT syndrome in a clinical laboratory. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 17: 553–561. PubMed ID: 23631430
  • Mesirca P, Marger L, Toyoda F, Rizzetto R, Audoubert M, Dubel S, Torrente AG, Difrancesco ML, Muller JC, Leoni A-L, Couette B, Nargeot J, Clapham DE, Wickman K, Mangoni ME. 2013. The G-protein-gated K+ channel, IKACh, is required for regulation of pacemaker activity and recovery of resting heart rate after sympathetic stimulation. J. Gen. Physiol. 142: 113–126. PubMed ID: 23858001
  • Priori SG. et al. 2004. JAMA. 292: 1341-4. PubMed ID: 15367556
  • Schwartz PJ. et al. 2001. Circulation. 103: 89-95. PubMed ID: 11136691
  • Wickman K, Krapivinsky G, Corey S, Kennedy M, Nemec J, Medina I, Clapham DE. 1999. Structure, G protein activation, and functional relevance of the cardiac G protein-gated K+ channel, IKACh. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 868: 386–398. PubMed ID: 10414308
  • Yang Y, Yang Y, Liang B, Liu J, Li J, Grunnet M, Olesen S-P, Rasmussen HB, Ellinor PT, Gao L, Lin X, Li L, Wang L, Xiao J, Liu Y, Liu Y, Zhang S, Liang D, Peng L, Jespersen T, Chen YH. 2010. Identification of a Kir3.4 mutation in congenital long QT syndrome. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86: 872–880. PubMed ID: 20560207
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Bi-Directional Sanger Sequencing

Test Procedure

Nomenclature for sequence variants was from the Human Genome Variation Society (http://www.hgvs.org).  As required, DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  PCR is used to amplify the indicated exons plus additional flanking non-coding sequence.  After cleaning of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  Products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In most cases, sequencing is performed in both forward and reverse directions; in some cases, sequencing is performed twice in either the forward or reverse directions.  In nearly all cases, the full coding region of each exon as well as 20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking the exon are sequenced.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, we compared 17.37 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 12 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 8,800 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was due to sequence analysis error.

Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger heterozygous insertions may not be detected. All homozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 300 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger homozygous insertions may masquerade as homozygous deletions (PCR failure).

Analytical Limitations

In exons where our sequencing did not reveal any variation between the two alleles, we cannot be certain that we were able to PCR amplify both of the patient’s alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due for example to a deletion or a large insertion. In these cases, the report contains no information about the second allele.

Similarly, our sequencing tests have almost no power to detect duplications, triplications, etc. of the gene sequences.

In most cases, only the indicated exons and roughly 20 bp of flanking non-coding sequence on each side are analyzed. Test reports contain little or no information about other portions of the gene, including many regulatory regions.

In nearly all cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants, due for example to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR and cycle sequencing.

Unless otherwise indicated, the sequence data that we report are based on DNA isolated from a specific tissue (usually leukocytes). Test reports contain no information about gene sequences in other tissues.

Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

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Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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