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Glaucoma Sequencing Panel

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

NGS Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1993 COL4A1 81408 Add to Order
CYP1B1 81404
FOXC1 81479
LMX1B 81479
LTBP2 81479
MFRP 81479
MYOC 81479
OPTN 81406
PAX6 81479
PITX2 81479
SH3PXD2B 81479
WDR36 81479
Full Panel Price* $1940.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
1993 Genes x (12) $1940.00 81404, 81406, 81408, 81479(x9) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

If you would like to order a subset of these genes contact us to discuss pricing.

Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Approximately 10%–20% of adult-onset POAG cases are due to pathogenic variants in the MYOC gene (Khan 2011; Wiggs et al. 2004). Abu-Amero et al. (2011) detected CYP1B1 pathogenic variants in 76% of families (41 out of 54) with at least one affected member with Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) (Abu-Amero et al. 2011). Another molecular analysis of CYP1B1 identified three pathogenic variants in 78% (7/9) of the unrelated PCG index cases (El-Gayar et al. 2009). Another study identified that 3.6% (9/251) of the POAG patients had pathogenic variants in the CYP1B1, MYOC, and OPTN genes (Kumar et al. 2007).

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 CYP1B1$690.00 81479 Add to Order
FOXC1$690.00 81479
LMX1B$690.00 81479
LTBP2$690.00 81479
MFRP$690.00 81479
MYOC$690.00 81479
OPTN$690.00 81479
PAX6$690.00 81479
PITX2$690.00 81479
Full Panel Price* $840.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
600 Genes x (9) $840.00 81479(x9) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price

1

$690

2

$730

3

$770

4-10

$840

11-30

$1,290

31-100

$1,670

Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Clinical sensitivity for causative variants in glaucoma cases is expected to be low. All documented large deletions in OPTN have been reported in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients while none have been reported in glaucoma patients (Human Gene Mutation Database).

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Clinical Features

Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), increased corneal diameter (megalocornea), enlarged globe (buphthalmos), Haab’s striae (opacification of the cornea with ruptures involving Descemet’s membrane), corneal edema and optic nerve head cupping, thinning of the anterior sclera and atrophy of the iris. Symptoms include photophobia, blepharospasm (abnormal contraction of the eyelid), and hyperlacrimation (excessive tearing). Abnormal development of the anterior segment angle or goniodysgenesis are the hallmarks of congenital glaucoma. It is a chronic disease and a major cause of blindness. Early detection is needed in order to prevent vision loss (Martin et al. 2000; Abu-Amero and Edward 2011). Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most prevalent form of glaucoma affecting all ages and is genetically complex (Ray and Mookherjee. 2009) Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) or Trabeculodysgenesis presents in neonates and during the infantile period with a varying prevalence rate ranging from 1 in 1,250 to 20,000 among different geographic locations and ethnic groups. The highest prevalence is found in the Gypsy population of Slovakia (1 in 1,250) followed by Saudi Arabians (1:2,500), Southern India (1:3,300), and the Western nations (1:5000-22,000) (Gencík et al. 1982; Azmanov et al. 2011; Abu-Amero and Edward 2011).

Genetics

Adult-onset POAG inherited as a complex trait, whereas juvenile-onset POAG exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance and is due to heterozygous pathogenic variants in MYOC, OPTN, or WDR36. Approximately 10%–20% of adult-onset POAG cases are due to pathogenic variants in the MYOC gene (Khan 2011; Wiggs et al. 2004). Pathogenic variants in CYP1B1 and LTBP2 have been reported to cause congenital glaucoma with autosomal recessive inheritance (Abu-Amero et al. 2011; Abu-Amero and Edward 2011). Glaucoma is manifested in several syndromic and other disorders associated with anterior segment dysgenesis. For example, Nail-patella syndrome, Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, Aniridia, nanophthalmos, and Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Causative variants in LMX1B (Vollrath et al. 1998), PITX2 (Strungaru et al. 2007), FOXC1 also known as FKHL7 (Ito et al. 2014; Paylakhi et al. 2013), PAX6 (Tzoulaki et al. 2005) and COL4A1 (Sibon et al. 2007) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Causative variants in MFRP (Ayala-Ramirez et al. 2006) and SH3PXD2B (Iqbal et al. 2010) are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. A wide variety of causative variants (missense, nonsense, splicing, small deletions and insertions) have been reported in these glaucoma-associated genes, including large deletions/duplications and complex genomic rearrangements in few genes (FOXC1, PAX6, CYP1B1, PITX2, LMX1B) (Human Gene Mutation Database). See individual gene test descriptions for information on molecular biology of gene products.

Testing Strategy

For this Next Generation (NextGen) panel, the full coding regions plus ~20 bp of non-coding DNA flanking each exon are sequenced for each of the genes listed below. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

Indications for Test

All patients with symptoms suggestive of primary open angle, congenital, juvenile, or adult-onset glaucoma are candidates.

Genes

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
COL4A1 120130
CYP1B1 601771
FOXC1 601090
LMX1B 602575
LTBP2 602091
MFRP 606227
MYOC 601652
OPTN 602432
PAX6 607108
PITX2 601542
SH3PXD2B 613293
WDR36 609669
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Diseases

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Aniridia, Cerebellar Ataxia, And Mental Retardation 206700
Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Type 3 602482
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, type 1 180500
Brain Small Vessel Disease With Hemorrhage 607595
Coloboma Of Optic Disc 120430
Coloboma, Ocular 120200
Congenital Aniridia 106210
Foveal Hypoplasia And Presenile Cataract Syndrome 136520
Frank Ter Haar Syndrome 249420
Glaucoma 1, Open Angle, G 609887
Glaucoma 3, Primary Congenital, D 613086
Glaucoma, Congenital 231300
Glaucoma, Normal Tension, Susceptibility To 606657
Iridogoniodysgenesis Type1 601631
Iridogoniodysgenesis, Dominant Type 137600
Keratitis, Hereditary 148190
Microphthalmia, Isolated 5 611040
Microspherophakia and/or Megalocornea, with Ectopia Lentis and with or without Secondary Glaucoma 251750
Nail-Patella Syndrome 161200
Nanophthalmos 2 609549
Optic Nerve Hypoplasia, Bilateral 165550
Peters Anomaly 604229
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma 137760
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Juvenile Onset 1 137750
Ring Dermoid Of Cornea 180550
Weill-Marchesani Syndrome 3 614819

Related Tests

Name
MFRP-Related Oculopathy via the MFRP Gene
PITX2- Related Disorders via PITX2 Gene
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia Sequencing Panel
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis via the OPTN Gene
Aniridia via The PAX6 Gene
Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability (ASD-ID) Comprehensive Panel
Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa Sequencing Panel
Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Sequencing Panel
Comprehensive Cardiology Sequencing Panel
Comprehensive Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (includes RPGR ORF15) Sequencing Panel
Congenital Cataracts Sequencing Panel
FOXC1-Related Disorders via the FOXC1 Gene
Nail-Patella Syndrome via the LMX1B Gene
Nephrotic Syndrome (NS)/Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) Sequencing Panel
Primary Congenital Glaucoma via the CYP1B1 Gene
Primary Congenital Glaucoma via the LTBP2 Gene
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma via the MYOC Gene
Retinitis Pigmentosa (includes RPGR ORF15) Sequencing Panel
Septo-optic Dysplasia Spectrum Sequencing Panel
Skeletal Disorders and Joint Problems Sequencing Panel

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Abu-Amero KK, Edward DP. 2011. Primary Congenital Glaucoma. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong C-T, and Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews™, Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PubMed ID: 20301314
  • Abu-Amero KK. et al. 2011. Molecular Vision. 17: 2911-9. PubMed ID: 22128238
  • Ayala-Ramirez R. et al. 2006. Molecular Vision. 12: 1483-9. PubMed ID: 17167404
  • Azmanov DN. et al. 2011. European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg. 19: 326-33. PubMed ID: 21081970
  • El-Gayar S. et al. 2009. Molecular Vision. 15: 1325-31.  PubMed ID: 19597567
  • Gencík A. et al. 1982. Human Genetics. 61: 193-7. PubMed ID: 7173860
  • Human Gene Mutation Database (Bio-base).
  • Iqbal Z. et al. 2010. American Journal of Human Genetics. 86: 254-61.  PubMed ID: 20137777
  • Ito YA. et al. 2014. Cell Death & Disease. 5: e1069. PubMed ID: 24556684
  • Khan AO. 2011. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 22: 347-55.  PubMed ID: 21730848
  • Kumar A. et al. 2007. Molecular Vision. 13: 667-76. PubMed ID: 17563717
  • Martin SN. et al. 2000. Journal of Medical Genetics. 37: 422-7. PubMed ID: 10851252
  • Paylakhi SH. et al. 2013. Experimental Eye Research. 111: 112-21. PubMed ID: 23541832
  • Ray K., Mookherjee S. 2009. Journal of Genetics. 88: 451-67.  PubMed ID: 20090207
  • Sibon I. et al. 2007. Annals of Neurolog. 62: 177–84. PubMed ID: 17696175
  • Strungaru MH. et al. 2007. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 48: 228-37. PubMed ID: 17197537
  • Tzoulaki I. et al. 2005. Bmc Genetics. 6: 27. PubMed ID: 15918896
  • Vollrath D. et al. 1998. Human Molecular Genetics. 7: 1091-8. PubMed ID: 9618165
  • Wiggs JL. et al. 2004. American Journal of Human Genetics. 74: 1314-20. PubMed ID: 15108121
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

NextGen Sequencing using PG-Select Capture Probes

Test Procedure

We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon.  As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes.  Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).  Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing.  All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions.  After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).

(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign, Common Variants

Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (http://www.hgvs.org).  Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.

In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.   

Analytical Limitations

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available.  Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.  Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion.   In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele.  Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).

We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon.  Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants.  In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited.  Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood).   Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics.  However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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