Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) Sanger Sequencing Panel 2

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits


Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
542 ALG12$680.00 81479 Add to Order
ALG2$540.00 81479
ALG3$680.00 81479
ALG8$810.00 81479
DPM1$650.00 81479
MPDU1$610.00 81479
Full Panel Price* $3370.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
542 Genes x (6) $3370.00 81479(x6) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

When three or more genes in the panel are tested, the price will be 85% of the sum of the individual gene prices. This phenotype is available on PGxome Custom Panels (Test #6000) and may be more cost effective.

Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of Sanger panels are completed within 2-4 weeks.

Clinical Sensitivity

Each of these disorders has been described in only a small number of patients. Therefore, clinical sensitivity cannot be estimated.

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 ALG12$690.00 81479 Add to Order
ALG2$690.00 81479
ALG3$690.00 81479
ALG8$690.00 81479
DPM1$690.00 81479
MPDU1$690.00 81479
Full Panel Price* $840.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
600 Genes x (6) $840.00 81479(x6) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price













Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Features

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by defective synthesis of asparagine (N)-linked glycans. Abnormalities in these glycoconjugates result in disturbed metabolism, cell recognition, cell adhesion, protease resistance, host defense, cell migration, and antigenicity (Marquardt and Denecke. Eur J Pediat 162:359-379, 2003). Consequently, clinical presentations are characterized by multisystem involvement. Psychomotor retardation is a finding of all CDG types in this Panel except CDG Ih (Chantret et al. J Biol Chem 278:9962-9971, 2003). Patients with CDG Ih demonstrate life-threatening GI findings (Schollen et al. J Med Genet 41:550-556, 2004) and lack facial dysmorphism which has been reported for types Id (Denecke et al. Pediat Res 58:248-253, 2005), Ie (Kim et al. J Clin Invest 105:191-198, 2000), and Ig (Chantret et al. J Biol Chem 277:25815-25822, 2002). Vision impairment and seizures are reported for cases of type Id (Denecke et al. 2005), Ie (Kim et al. 2000), If (Kranz et al. J Clin Invest 108:1613-1619, 2003), and Ii (Thiel et al. J Biol Chem 278:22498-22505, 2003). Microcephaly is reported for cases of type Ie (Imbach et al. J Clin Invest 105:233-239, 2000), and Ig (Chantret et al. 2002). Congenital hypotonia and/or contractures are noted in cases of types Id (Denecke et al. 2005), Ie (Kim et al. 2000), and If (Kranz et al. 2003). Recurrent infections have been reported in patients with type Ie (Imbach et al. 2000) and Ig (Chantret et al. 2002).


CDGs exhibit autosomal recessive inheritance. Missense, nonsense, small deletions, and splice site mutations have been reported for the genes in this panel.

Testing Strategy

Testing is accomplished by sequentially amplifying the coding exons and ~10 bp of adjacent noncoding sequence of each gene, then determining the nucleotide sequence using standard dideoxy sequencing methods and a capillary electrophoresis instrument. The genes will be tested in the order specified by the client on the Requisition Form. We will also sequence any single exon (Test #100) or pair of exons (Test #200) in family members of patients with known mutations or to confirm research results.

Indications for Test

Individuals with clinical and biochemical findings consistent with CDG.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
ALG12 607144
ALG2 607905
ALG3 608750
ALG8 608103
DPM1 603503
MPDU1 604041
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Related Tests

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability (ASD-ID) Comprehensive Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Comprehensive Neuromuscular Sequencing Panel
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Type Id (CDG Id) via the ALG3 Gene
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Type Ie (CDG Ie) via the DPM1 Gene
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Type If (CDG If) via the MPDU1 Gene
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Type Ig (CDG Ig) via the ALG12 Gene
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Type Ih (CDG Ih) via the ALG8 Gene
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Type Ii (CDG Ii) via the ALG2 Gene
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Sequencing Panel
Dystroglycan-Related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Sequencing Panel


Genetic Counselors
  • Chantret, I., (2002). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ig is defined by a deficiency in dolichyl-P-mannose:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase." J Biol Chem 277(28): 25815-22. PubMed ID: 11983712
  • Chantret, I., (2003). "A deficiency in dolichyl-P-glucose:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl alpha3-glucosyltransferase defines a new subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation." J Biol Chem 278(11): 9962-71. PubMed ID: 12480927
  • Denecke, J., (2005). "Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Id: clinical phenotype, molecular analysis, prenatal diagnosis, and glycosylation of fetal proteins." Pediatr Res 58(2): 248-53. PubMed ID: 16006436
  • Imbach, T., (2000). "Deficiency of dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase-1 causes congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ie." J Clin Invest 105(2): 233-9. PubMed ID: 10642602
  • Kim, S., (2000). "Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM1) mutations define congenital disorder of glycosylation Ie (CDG-Ie)." J Clin Invest 105(2): 191-8. PubMed ID: 10642597
  • Kranz, C., (2001). "A mutation in the human MPDU1 gene causes congenital disorder of glycosylation type If (CDG-If)." J Clin Invest 108(11): 1613-9. PubMed ID: 11733556
  • Marquardt, T., Denecke, J. (2003). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation: review of their molecular bases, clinical presentations and specific therapies." Eur J Pediatr 162(6): 359-79. PubMed ID: 12756558
  • Schollen, E., (2004). "Clinical and molecular features of three patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ih (CDG-Ih) (ALG8 deficiency)." J Med Genet 41(7): 550-6. PubMed ID: 15235028
  • Thiel, C., (2003). "A new type of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG-Ii) provides new insights into the early steps of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 278(25): 22498-505. PubMed ID: 12684507
Order Kits

Bi-Directional Sanger Sequencing

Test Procedure

Nomenclature for sequence variants was from the Human Genome Variation Society (  As required, DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  PCR is used to amplify the indicated exons plus additional flanking non-coding sequence.  After cleaning of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  Products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In most cases, sequencing is performed in both forward and reverse directions; in some cases, sequencing is performed twice in either the forward or reverse directions.  In nearly all cases, the full coding region of each exon as well as 10 bases of non-coding DNA flanking the exon are sequenced.

Analytical Validity

As of February 2018, we compared 26.8 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 14 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 14,300 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was an error in analysis of sequence data.

Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger heterozygous insertions may not be detected. All homozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 300 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger homozygous insertions may masquerade as homozygous deletions (PCR failure).

Analytical Limitations

In exons where our sequencing did not reveal any variation between the two alleles, we cannot be certain that we were able to PCR amplify both of the patient’s alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due for example to a deletion or a large insertion. In these cases, the report contains no information about the second allele.

Similarly, our sequencing tests have almost no power to detect duplications, triplications, etc. of the gene sequences.

In most cases, only the indicated exons and roughly 10 bp of flanking non-coding sequence on each side are analyzed. Test reports contain little or no information about other portions of the gene, including many regulatory regions.

In nearly all cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants, due for example to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR and cycle sequencing.

Unless otherwise indicated, the sequence data that we report are based on DNA isolated from a specific tissue (usually leukocytes). Test reports contain no information about gene sequences in other tissues.

Deletion/Duplication Testing via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options

myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.


(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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