Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Sequencing Panel

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
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NextGen Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1311 ANK2 81479 Add to Order
CALM1 81479
CASQ2 81405
KCNJ2 81403
KCNQ1 81406
RYR2 81408
SCN5A 81407
TRDN 81479
Full Panel Price* $640.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
1311 Genes x (8) $640.00 81403, 81405, 81406, 81407, 81408, 81479(x3) Add to Order
Pricing Comments

We are happy to accommodate requests for single genes or a subset of these genes. The price will remain the list price. If desired, free reflex testing to remaining genes on panel is available. Alternatively, a single gene or subset of genes can also be ordered on our PGxome Custom Panel.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 20 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Pathogenic variants in these eight genes account for 52%-60% of CPVT cases (Napolitano et al. 2014).

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Del/Dup via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesPriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 ANK2$990.00 81479 Add to Order
CASQ2$990.00 81479
KCNJ2$990.00 81479
KCNQ1$990.00 81479
RYR2$990.00 81479
SCN5A$990.00 81479
Full Panel Price* $1290.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
600 Genes x (6) $1290.00 81479(x6) Add to Order
Pricing Comments

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price









Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 20 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Clinical sensitivity for deletion and duplications is currently not known. To date, three large deletions in the RYR2 gene have been described in patients with CPVT (Bhuiyan et al. 2007; Marjamaa et al. 2009, Medeiros-Domingo et al. 2009).

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Clinical Features

Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited arrhythmogenic heart disorder characterized by life-threatening electrical instability induced by physical or emotional stress without any structural cardiac abnormalities (Napolitano et al. 2014). The electrical instability may degenerate into cardiac arrest and sudden death. CPVT typically onsets during childhood and often presents as syncope. Preventative drugs (beta-blockers) and other treatments are available for susceptible individuals.


CPVT is inherited in an autosomal dominant (ANK2; CALM1; KCNJ2; KCNQ1; RYR2; SCN5A) or in an autosomal recessive manner (CASQ2; TRDN). The true prevalence of CPVT is unknown, but is estimated to be about 1 in 10,000 people (Liu et al. 2008). This panel includes 8 genes associated with CPVT: ANK2, CALM1, CASQ2, KCNJ2, KCNQ1, RYR2, SCN5A and TRDN. A wide variety of causative variants (missense, nonsense, splicing, small deletions and insertions) have been reported. Large deletions/duplications and complex genomic rearrangements have also been reported in a few genes (KCNQ1, KCNJ2, RYR2 and SCN5A) (Human Gene Mutation Database). Ankyrin-B protein, encoded by the ANK2 gene, is a member of the ankyrin family of proteins and plays essential roles in the targeting and membrane stabilization of ion channels and transporters in cardiomyocytes, such as Na/K-ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP3 receptor (Mohler et al. 2007). CALM1 is the archetype of the calmodulin (calcium-modulated proteins) family of which nearly 20 members have been identified. Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional calcium ion sensor protein that transduces much of the calcium signaling (Kobayashi et al. 2015). CASQ2 (calsequestrin 2) encodes for the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium buffering protein and RYR2 (ryanodine receptor 2) encodes for the cardiac calcium release channel. Both proteins play essential roles in the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Priori et al. 2011). KCNJ2, encoding the inward rectifier potassium channel 2 protein (Kir2.1), is an important determinant of resting membrane potential and cell excitability (Plaster et al. 2001). KCNQ1 codes for the voltage-gated potassium channel protein KvLQT1 that is highly expressed in the heart muscle and inner ear, and helps transport positively charged potassium ions out of cells. In the heart, the channels are involved in recharging the cardiac muscle after each heartbeat to maintain a regular rhythm. In the inner ear, these channels help maintain the proper ion balance needed for normal hearing. The SCN5A gene encodes the alpha-subunit of human cardiac sodium channel, which is responsible for the generation of cardiac action potential and for rapid impulse conduction through the myocardium. TRDN encodes an integral membrane protein, Triadin, which contains a single transmembrane domain. Triadin plays a role in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling by interacting with the RYR2 and RYR1 proteins and contributing to sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation (Györke et al. 2004).

Testing Strategy

For this Next Generation (NextGen) panel, the full coding regions plus ~10 bp of non-coding DNA flanking each exon are sequenced for each of the genes listed below. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

Indications for Test

Patients with CPVT. Individuals with exercise or stress induced cardiac arrest or sudden unexplained death are also candidates.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
ANK2 106410
CALM1 114180
CASQ2 114251
KCNJ2 600681
KCNQ1 607542
RYR2 180902
SCN5A 600163
TRDN 603283
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

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Genetic Counselors
  • Bhuiyan ZA et al. 2007. Circulation. 116: 1569-76. PubMed ID: 17875969
  • Györke I. et al. 2004. Biophysical Journal. 86: 2121-8. PubMed ID: 15041652
  • Human Gene Mutation Database (Bio-base).
  • Kobayashi H. et al. 2015. Development (Cambridge, England). 142: 375-84. PubMed ID: 25519244
  • Liu N. et al. 2008. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 51: 23-30. PubMed ID: 18634915
  • Marjamaa A et al. 2009. Bmc Medical Genetics. 10: 12. PubMed ID: 19216760
  • Medeiros-Domingo A. et al. 2009. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 54: 2065-74. PubMed ID: 19926015
  • Mohler PJ. et al. 2007. Circulation. 115: 432-41. PubMed ID: 17242276
  • Napolitano, C. et al. 2014. Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong C-T, Smith RJ, and Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews™, Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PubMed ID: 20301466
  • Plaster NM. et al. 2001. Cell. 105: 511-9. PubMed ID: 11371347
  • Priori SG., Chen SR. 2011. Circulation Research. 108: 871-83. PubMed ID: 21454795
Order Kits

NextGen Sequencing using PG-Select Capture Probes

Test Procedure

We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~10 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon.  As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes.  Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).  Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are often covered by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions.  After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).

(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign Variants

Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (  Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.

In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.   

Analytical Limitations

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available.  Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.  Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion.   In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele.  Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).

We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~10 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon.  Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants.  In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited.  Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood).   Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics.  However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

Deletion/Duplication Testing via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options

myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.


(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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