Andermann Syndrome via the SLC12A6 Gene
- Summary and Pricing
- Clinical Features and Genetics
|Test Code||Test||Individual Gene Price||CPT Code Copy CPT Codes|
Our most cost-effective testing approach is NextGen sequencing with Sanger sequencing supplemented as needed to ensure sufficient coverage and to confirm NextGen calls that are pathogenic, likely pathogenic or of uncertain significance. If, however, full gene Sanger sequencing only is desired (for purposes of insurance billing or STAT turnaround time for example), please see link below for Test Code, pricing, and turnaround time information.
For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.
The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.
Molecular genetic testing by sequencing of SLC12A6 detects more than 90% of disease-causing mutations. In particular, the c.2436delG mutation is the one found in almost all (>99%) individuals of French-Canadian descent and has a clinical sensitivity of 100%.
Andermann Syndrome or Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC) is a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder associated with dysmorphic features. The disorder is characterized by severe progressive sensorimotor neuropathy with resulting hypotonia, areflexia, and amyotrophy and variable degrees of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Mild-to-severe intellectual disability and "psychotic episodes" during adolescence are observed. Sensory modalities are moderately to severely affected beginning in infancy. The average age of onset of walking is 3.8 years; the average age of loss of walking is 13.8 years while the average age of death is 33 years (Dupré et al. 2003).
Andermann syndrome has a high prevalence of 1 in 2000 newborns in the French Canadian population in the Charlevoix and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec (Uyanik et al. 2006) and is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder.
The SLC12A6 gene is the only gene with mutations known to be causative for Andermann syndrome. The SLC12A6 gene codes for a potassium-chloride cotransporter which is involved in moving charged potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) ions across the cell membrane. While the specific function of the K-Cl cotransporter produced from the SLC12A6 gene is unknown, it seems to be critical for the development and maintenance of nerve tissue. Most reported causative mutations in SLC12A6 are truncating and missense mutations (Uyanik et al. 2006; Howard et al. 2002). The lack of functional protein normally produced from the SLC12A6 gene is believed to interfere with the development of the corpus callosum and maintenance of the nerves that transmit signals needed for movement and sensation, resulting in the signs and symptoms of Andermann syndrome.
For this NextGen test, the full coding regions plus ~20 bp of non-coding DNA flanking each exon are sequenced for the gene listed below. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
Indications for Test
Individuals with clinical manifestations including severe progressive sensorimotor neuropathy with resulting hypotonia, areflexia, and amyotrophy or those that have a variable degree of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum as determined by MRI would be candidates for SLC12A6 testing (Dupré et al. 2003).
|Official Gene Symbol||OMIM ID|
|Comprehensive Neuropathy Sequencing Panel|
- Genetic Counselor Team - email@example.com
- Khemissa Bejaoui, PhD - firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dupré N, Howard HC, Mathieu J, Karpati G, Vanasse M, Bouchard J-P, Carpenter S, Rouleau GA. 2003. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Ann. Neurol. 54: 9–18.
PubMed ID: 12838516
- Howard HC, Mount DB, Rochefort D, Byun N, Dupré N, Lu J, Fan X, Song L, Rivière J-B, Prévost C, Horst J, Simonati A, et al. 2002. The K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 is mutant in a severe peripheral neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Nat. Genet. 32: 384–392. PubMed ID: 12368912
- Uyanik G, Elcioglu N, Penzien J, Gross C, Yilmaz Y, Olmez A, Demir E, Wahl D, Scheglmann K, Winner B, Bogdahn U, Topaloglu H, et al. 2006. Novel truncating and missense mutations of the KCC3 gene associated with Andermann syndrome. Neurology 66: 1044–1048. PubMed ID: 16606917
We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon. As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen. For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes. Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions. After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit. PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer. In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.
Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).
(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign, Common Variants
Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (http://www.hgvs.org). Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.
As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.
In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.
Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available. Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.
When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion. In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele. Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).
We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon. Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.
In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.
Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.
Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.
Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood). Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.
We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.
Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.
We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics. However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.
myPrevent - Online Ordering
- The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
- Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
- The first four pages of the requisition form must accompany all specimens.
- Billing information is on the third and fourth pages.
- Specimen and shipping instructions are listed on the fifth and sixth pages.
- All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.
(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)
- Collect 3-5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10-20 ml of whole blood.
- For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
- Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
- Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
- During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
- In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
- At room temperature, blood specimen is good for up to 48 hours.
- If refrigerated, blood specimen is good for up to one week.
- Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.
(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)
- NextGen Sequencing Tests: Send in screw cap tube at least 10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 50 µg/ml
- Sanger Sequencing Tests: Send in a screw cap tube at least 15 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml. For tests involving the sequencing of more than three genes, send an additional 5 µg DNA per gene. DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
- Deletion/Duplication via aCGH: Send in screw cap tube at least 1 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml.
- Whole-Genome Chromosomal Microarray: Collect at least 5 µg of DNA in TE (10 mM Tris-cl pH 8.0, 1mM EDTA), dissolved in 200 µl at a concentration of at least 100 ng/ul (indicate concentration on tube label). DNA extracted using a column-based method (Qiagen) or bead-based technology is preferred.
(Delivery accepted Monday - Thursday)
- PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
- Ship at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
- Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
- We do not culture cells.