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Male Infertility Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
4511 AIRE 81406,81479 Add to Order
AMH 81479,81479
AMHR2 81479,81479
ANOS1 81406,81479
AR 81405,81479
ARL6 81479,81479
ARX 81404,81403
ATRX 81479,81479
AURKC 81479,81479
BBS1 81406,81479
BBS10 81404,81479
BBS12 81479,81479
BBS2 81406,81479
BBS4 81479,81479
BBS5 81479,81479
BBS7 81479,81479
BBS9 81479,81479
CATSPER1 81479,81479
CBX2 81479,81479
CFTR 81223,81222
CHD7 81407,81479
CYP11A1 81479,81479
CYP17A1 81405,81479
CYP19A1 81479,81479
DHH 81479,81479
DMRT1 81479,81479
DMRT2 81479,81479
DNAH1 81479,81479
FGF8 81479,81479
FGFR1 81405,81479
FGFR2 81479,81479
FOXL2 81479,81479
FSHB 81479,81479
GALNTL5 81479,81479
GATA4 81479,81479
GNRH1 81479,81479
GNRHR 81405,81479
HESX1 81479,81479
HFE 81479,81479
HS6ST1 81479,81479
HSD17B3 81479,81479
KISS1 81479,81479
KISS1R 81479,81479
LEP 81479,81479
LEPR 81406,81479
LHCGR 81406,81479
LHX3 81479,81479
LHX4 81479,81479
MAMLD1 81479,81479
MAP3K1 81479,81479
MKKS 81479,81479
NPAS2 81479,81479
NR0B1 81404,81479
NR5A1 81479,81479
NSMF 81479,81479
PCSK1 81479,81479
PICK1 81479,81479
POR 81479,81479
PROK2 81479,81479
PROKR2 81479,81479
PROP1 81404,81479
RSPO1 81479,81479
SEMA3A 81479,81479
SLC26A8 81479,81479
SOX2 81479,81479
SOX3 81479,81479
SOX9 81479,81479
SPATA16 81479,81479
SRD5A2 81479,81479
SRY 81400,81479
STAR 81479,81479
TAC3 81479,81479
TACR3 81479,81479
TEX11 81479,81479
TRIM32 81479,81479
TTC8 81479,81479
WDR11 81479,81479
WNT4 81479,81479
WT1 81405,81479
WWOX 81479,81479
Full Panel Price* $990.00
Test Code Test Copy Genes Total Price CPT Codes Copy CPT Codes
4511 Genes x (80) $990.00 81222, 81223, 81400, 81403, 81404(x4), 81405(x5), 81406(x6), 81407, 81479(x140) Add to Order
Pricing Comment

We are happy to accommodate requests for single genes or a subset of these genes. The price will remain the list price. If desired, free reflex testing to remaining genes on panel is available. Alternatively, a single gene or subset of genes can also be ordered on our PGxome Custom Panel.

Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 26 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

This multi-gene panel analyzes genes involved in both syndromic and non-syndromic male infertility (Baxter 2015). The detection rate of this NGS panel in a large cohort of infertile male patients is unavailable in the literature. However, in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 40-50% of patients have pathogenic variants in 28 genes in this panel.

At this time, the clinical sensitivity of deletion/duplication testing is difficult to estimate due to the lack of large cohort studies. So far, gross deletions or duplications have been reported in SOX3, LHCGR, SRY, NR0B1, DMRT1, NR5A1, GATA4, WT1, WNT4, and FGFR2 genes.

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Clinical Features

Infertility is a disorder of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It affects 10-20% of couples worldwide, with male factor infertility accounting for about half of the cases.

In humans, sexual development and reproductive function occur by the actions of the hypothalamin-pituitary-gonadal axis induced by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Aberrations in this axis can lead to pubertal and reproductive deficiencies. Diagnoses of infertility include hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, and obstructive disorders (Layman 2002). Male patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism often present prepubertal testicular volume (<4 ml), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido and erectile dysfunction owing to low serum gonadotropin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) (Buck et al. 2013); while hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in male patients are usually caused by testicular dysfunction (oligospermia, azoospermia, or other abnormalities of sperm morphology or motility).

Genetics

Infertility is a multifactorial complex condition with highly heterogeneous phenotypic representation. Genetic abnormalities including both chromosomal and single-gene alterations which can account for 15-30% of male factor infertility (Hotaling 2014). Genetic causes can be detected in all major etiologic categories of male infertility (pre-testicular, testicular and post-testicular forms). Genes and genomic regulation involved in male sexual development (SRY), testicular development (GATA4, NR5A1, NR0B1, WT1, DAX1, SOX9, ARX, ATRX), male genital tract development (AMH, AMHR1, AR, BMP4), and spermatogenesis (AURKC, SPATA16, DAZ, CFTR) have all been associated with male infertility (Miyamoto 2015). See individual gene test descriptions for information on molecular biology of gene products.

Y chromosome microdeletion, sex chromosome aneuploidy, structual abnormaility, and copy number variants (CNVs) are common genetic causes of male infertility. For this reason, genetic testing to detect large cytogenetic events and CNVs is recommended in the case of a male patient with infertility.

Testing Strategy

For this NextGen test, we sequence all coding exons of the genes listed below, plus ~10 nucleotides of flanking intronic DNA. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, undocumented and questionable variant calls are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions. After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit. PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer. In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Copy number variants (CNVs) are also detected from NGS data. We utilize a CNV calling algorithm that compares mean read depth and distribution for each target in the test sample against multiple matched controls. Neighboring target read depth and distribution and zygosity of any variants within each target region are used to reinforce CNV calls. All CNVs are confirmed using another technology such as aCGH, MLPA, or PCR before they are reported.

This panel typically provides >99% coverage of all coding exons of the genes listed, plus ~10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA. We define coverage as ≥20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing.

Since this test is performed using exome capture probes, a reflex to any of our exome based tests is available (PGxome, PGxome Custom Panels).

Indications for Test

This test is recommended for men with genetic infertility.

Diseases

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
3-Oxo-5 Alpha-Steroid Delta 4-Dehydrogenase Deficiency AD 264600
46,XX Sex Reversal, Type 1 AR 400045
46,XY Sex Reversal, Type 5 AD 613080
46,XY Sex Reversal, Type 6 AD 613762
46,XY Sex Reversal, Type 7 AR 233420
Adrenal Insufficiency, Congenital, With 46,XY Sex Reversal, Partial Or Complete AR 613743
Androgen Resistance Syndrome XL 300068
Antley-Bixler Syndrome AR 207410
Antley-Bixler Syndrome With Genital Anomalies And Disordered Steroidogenesis AR 201750
ATR-X Syndrome XL 301040
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 1 AR 209900
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 10 AR 615987
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 11 AR 615988
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 12 AR 615989
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 2 AR 615981
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 3 AR 600151
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 4 AR 615982
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 5 AR 615983
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 6 AR 605231
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 7 AR 615984
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 8 AR 615985
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome 9 AR 615986
Blepharophimosis, Ptosis, And Epicanthus Inversus AR 110100
Camptomelic Dysplasia AD 114290
CATSPER-Related Male Infertility AR 612997
Cholesterol Monooxygenase (Side-Chain Cleaving) Deficiency AR 201710
Congenital Bilateral Absence Of The Vas Deferens AR 277180
Cystic Fibrosis AR 219700
Deficiency Of Steroid 17-Alpha-Monooxygenase AD,AR 202110
Familial Gynecomastia, Due To Increased Aromatase Activity AR 139300
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Deficiency, Isolated XL 229070
Gonadotropin-Independent Familial Sexual Precocity AR 176410
Hemochromatosis Type 1 AR 235200
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 10 with or without Anosmia AR 614839
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 11 with or without Anosmia AR 614840
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 12 with or without Anosmia AR 614841
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 13 with or without Anosmia AR 614842
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 14 with or without Anosmia AD 614858
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 15 with or without Anosmia AD 614880
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 16 with or without Anosmia AD 614897
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 7 with or without Anosmia AR 146110
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 8 with or without Anosmia AR 614837
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 9 with or without Anosmia AD 614838
Hypospadias 2, X-Linked XL 300758
Infertility Associated With Multi-Tailed Spermatozoa And Excessive DNA AR 243060
Isolated X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita AR 300200
Kallmann Syndrome 1 XL 308700
Kallmann Syndrome 2 AD 147950
Kallmann Syndrome 3 AD 244200
Kallmann Syndrome 4 AD 610628
Kallmann Syndrome 5 AD 612370
Kallmann Syndrome 6 AD 612702
Mental Retardation-Hypotonic Facies Syndrome X-Linked, 1 XL 309580
Microphthalmia Syndromic 3 AR 206900
Mullerian Aplasia And Hyperandrogenism AD 158330
Palmoplantar Hyperkeratosis With Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of Skin And 46,XX Sex Reversal AR 610644
Panhypopituitarism X-Linked AD 312000
Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome AR 261550
Pituitary Hormone Deficiency, Combined 2 AR 262600
Pituitary Hormone Deficiency, Combined 3 AR 221750
Pituitary Hormone Deficiency, Combined 4 AD,AR 262700
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome, Type 1 AD 240300
Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency AR 600955
Septooptic Dysplasia AR 182230
Spermatogenic Failure 2 AR 309120
Spermatogenic Failure 3 XL 606766
Spermatogenic Failure 6 AD 102530
Spermatogenic Failure 8 XL 613957
Testicular Anomalies with or without Congenital Heart Disease AD 615542
Testosterone 17-Beta-Dehydrogenase Deficiency AR 264300
Wilms' Tumor AD 194070
X-Linked Lissencephaly 2 AR 300215

Related Tests

Name
46,XX Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) via WNT4 Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
46,XY Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) via the HSD17B3 Gene
DHH-related Disorders of Sex Development via DHH Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
FGFR1-Related Disorders via the FGFR1 Gene
FGFR2-Related Disorders via the FGFR2 Gene
LHCGR-related Disorders via the LHCGR Gene
NR0B1-Related Disorders via the NR0B1 Gene
NR5A1-Related Disorders via the NR5A1 Gene
SRY-related Disorders of Sex Development via the SRY Gene
Alpha-Thalassemia X-linked Intellectual Disability Syndrome via the ATRX Gene
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) via the Androgen Receptor (AR) Gene
Anophthalmia / Microphthalmia Sequencing Panel
Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability (ASD-ID) Comprehensive Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Autism Spectrum Disorders Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1 via the AIRE Gene
Autosomal Recessive Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) Sequencing Panel
Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Sequencing Panel
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via TRIM32/BBS11 Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the ARL6/BBS3 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS1 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS10 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS12 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS2 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS4 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS5 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS7 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the BBS9 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the MKKS/BBS6 Gene
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome via the TTC8/BBS8 Gene
Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus syndrome (BPES) via the FOXL2 Gene
CHARGE and Kallmann Syndromes via the CHD7 Gene
Chronic Pancreatitis Sequencing Panel
Ciliopathy Sequencing Panel
Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD) Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency-2 (CPHD2) via the PROP1 Gene
Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency-4 (CPHD-4) via the LHX4 Gene
Comprehensive Cardiology Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Comprehensive Epilepsy and Seizure Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Comprehensive Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (includes RPGR ORF15) Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Comprehensive Neuromuscular Sequencing Panel
Congenital Abnormalities of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT) Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Congenital Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Hormone Resistance Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and Cornelia de Lange Syndrome-Related Disorders Sequencing Panel
Cystic Fibrosis and CF-Related Disorders via the CFTR Gene
Disorders of Sex Development and Infertility Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Disorders of Sex Development Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Female Infertility Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Globozoospermia via SPATA16 Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
Hereditary Hemochromatosis via the HFE Gene
Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
HESX1-Related Disorders via HESX1 Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
Holoprosencephaly, Autosomal Dominant, Nonsyndromic, Sequencing Panel
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism/Kallmann Syndrome Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism/Kallmann Syndrome via PROK2 Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism/Kallmann Syndrome via the PROKR2 Gene
Hypoparathyroidism Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) via the GNRHR Gene
Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) via the KISS1 Gene
Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) via the KISS1R Gene
Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) via the GNRH1 Gene
Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) via the TAC3 Gene
Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) via the TACR3 Gene
Interstitial Lung Disease Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Isolated Nonsyndromic Congenital Heart Defects via the GATA4 Gene
Kallmann Syndrome via the KAL1(ANOS1) Gene
Leber Congenital Amaurosis 10 (LCA10) via the CEP290 Gene
Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) Sequencing Panel
Male and Female Infertility via the FSHB Gene
Male Infertility via the CATSPER1 Gene
Male Infertility with Large-headed Spermatozoa via the AURKC Gene
Neonatal Crisis Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Nephrotic Syndrome (NS)/Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) Sequencing Panel
Non-Syndromic Monogenic Obesity Sequencing Panel
Non-Syndromic Monogenic Obesity via the LEP Gene
Non-Syndromic Monogenic Obesity via the LEPR Gene
Non-Syndromic Monogenic Obesity via the PCSK1 Gene
P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency via POR Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) via the DNAH1 Gene
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD)/Immotile Cilia Syndrome and Cystic Fibrosis Sequencing Panel
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD)/Immotile Cilia Syndrome Sequencing Panel
Renal Cancer Sequencing Panel
Retinitis Pigmentosa (includes RPGR ORF15) Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome and Variant Syndromes Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
Septo-optic Dysplasia Spectrum Sequencing Panel
Short Rib Skeletal Dysplasia Sequencing Panel
Skeletal Disorders and Joint Problems Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
SOX2-Related Ocular Disorders via SOX2 Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection
Spinocerebellar Ataxia-12 via the WWOX Gene
Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic syndrome via the WT1 Gene
Wilms Tumor via the WT1 Gene
X-Linked Intellectual Disability Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection
X-Linked Lissencephaly-2 via ARX Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Baxter R.M. et al. 2015. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 100: E333-44. PubMed ID: 25383892
  • Buck C. et al. 2013. Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong C-T, and Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews™, Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PubMed ID: 20301509
  • Hotaling J.M. 2014. The Urologic Clinics of North America. 41: 1-17. PubMed ID: 24286764
  • Layman L.C. 2002. Journal of Medical Genetics. 39: 153-61. PubMed ID: 11897813
  • Miyamoto T. 2015. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 41(10): 1501-5. PubMed ID: 26178295
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Exome Sequencing with CNV Detection

Test Procedure

For the PGxome we use Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies to cover the coding regions of targeted genes plus ~10 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon. As required, genomic DNA is extracted from patient specimens. Patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using Agilent Clinical Research Exome hybridization probes. Captured DNA is sequenced on the NovaSeq 6000 using 2x150 bp paired-end reads (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). The following quality control metrics are generally achieved: >97% of target bases are covered at >20x, and mean coverage of target bases >120x. Data analysis and interpretation is performed by the internally developed software Titanium-Exome. In brief, the output data from the NovaSeq 6000 is converted to fastqs by Illumina Bcl2Fastq, and mapped by BWA. Variant calls are made by the GATK Haplotype caller and annotated using in house software and SnpEff. Variants are filtered and annotated using VarSeq (www.goldenhelix.com). Common benign, likely benign, and low quality variants are filtered from analysis. All reported pathogenic, likely pathogenic, and variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions. After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit. PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer. In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Copy number variants (CNVs) are also detected from NGS data. We utilize a CNV calling algorithm that compares mean read depth and distribution for each target in the test sample against multiple matched controls. Neighboring target read depth and distribution and zygosity of any variants within each target region are used to reinforce CNV calls. All CNVs are confirmed using another technology such as aCGH, MLPA, or PCR before they are reported.

Analytical Validity

Copy Number Variant Analysis: The PGxome test detects most larger deletions and duplications including intragenic CNVs and large cytogenetic events; however aberrations in a small percentage of regions may not be accurately detected due to sequence paralogy (e.g., pseudogenes, segmental duplications), sequence properties, deletion/duplication size (e.g., 1-3 exons vs. 4 or more exons), and inadequate coverage. In general, sensitivity for single, double, or triple exon CNVs is ~80% and for CNVs of four exon size or larger is close to 100%, but may vary from gene-to-gene based on exon size, depth of coverage, and characteristics of the region.

Analytical Limitations

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available. Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When sequencing does not reveal any heterozygous differences from the reference sequence, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.

For technical reasons, the PGxome test is not 100% sensitive. Some exons cannot be efficiently captured, and some genes cannot be accurately sequenced because of the presence of multiple copies in the genome. Therefore, a small fraction of sequence variants will not be detected.

We sequence coding exons for most given transcripts, plus ~10 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon. Unless specifically indicated, test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions, uncharacterized alternative exons, chromosomal rearrangements, repeat expansions, epigenetic effects, and mitochondrial genome variants.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient's nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during amplification.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes if taken from whole blood). Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Balanced translocations or inversions are only rarely detected.

Certain types of sex chromosome aneuploidy may not be detected.  

In nearly all cases, our ability to determine the exact copy number change within a targeted region is limited.

Our ability to detect CNVs due to somatic mosaicism is limited.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics. However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

A negative finding does not rule out a genetic diagnosis.

Genetic counseling to help to explain test results to the patients and to discuss reproductive options is recommended.

Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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