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MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP) Syndrome via MUTYH Gene Sequencing with CNV Detection

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
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TEST METHODS

Sequencing and CNV

Test Code Test Copy GenesPriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
7505 MUTYH$540 81406,81479 Add to Order

New York State Approved Test

Pricing Comments

This test is also offered via our exome backbone with CNV detection (click here). The exome-based test may be higher priced, but permits reflex to the entire exome or to any other set of clinically relevant genes.

Targeted Testing

For ordering sequencing of targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 20 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

By definition, all MAP patients have biallelic germline mutations in MUTYH. However, mutations in MUTYH are also found in ~25% of patients initially diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) (Sampson et al. Lancet 362:39-41, 2003). Clinical sensitivity for MUTYH deletions/duplications is not currently known.

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Clinical Features

MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP) (OMIM 608456) is an autosomal recessive condition of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) (OMIM 175100) caused exclusively by mutations in the MUTYH gene (OMIM 604933) (Al-Tassan et al. Nat Genet 30:227-232, 2002; Sieber et al. New Eng J Med 348:791-799, 2003). Individuals with MAP typically present by age 55 with multiple (between 10 and 1000) colorectal adenomas, some of which have or will become colorectal tumors (Poulsen & Bisgaard Curr Genomics 9:420-435, 2008). The MUTYH gene encodes a vital component of the Base Excision Repair (BER) system, which protects DNA from oxidative damage and the misincorporation of adenines opposite guanines during DNA replication (Lu et al. Front Biosci 11:3062-3080, 2006). As such, the molecular profile of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas taken from MAP patients includes G:C → T:A transversions in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and K-ras tumor suppressor (KRAS) genes, among others (Lipton et al. Cancer Res 63:7595-7599, 2003; Jones et al. Br J Cancer 90:1591-1593, 2004).

Genetics

To date, about 100 pathogenic mutations have been reported in the MUTYH gene, nearly all (~99%) of which are single nucleotide variations, small insertions or deletions, or splice-site mutations (www.insight-group.org, www.hgmd.org). While MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP) occurs in patients from various ethnic groups, specific MUTYH mutations are found in different populations. In European and North American MAP populations, two missense mutations, p.Tyr179Cys and p.Gly396Asp, are most common; both homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations contribute to the disease (Jones et al. Hum Mol Genet 11:2961-2967, 2002). In Asian MAP populations, common mutations include the missense mutation p.Arg245Cys, splice-site mutation c.934-2A>G, and p.Glu480Stop nonsense mutation; in these cases only homozygous mutations have been reported to contribute to disease (Tao et al. Carcinogenesis 25:1859-1866, 2004; Miyaki et al. Mutat Res 578:430-433, 2005). The penetrance of colorectal cancer (CRC) for biallelic carriers of MUTYH mutations is nearly 100% by the age of 60 (Farrington et al. Am J Hum Genet 77:112-119, 2005).

Testing Strategy

For this Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) test, sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads.

For Sanger sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions. After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit. PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer. In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Copy number variants (CNVs) are also detected from NGS data. We utilize a CNV calling algorithm that compares mean read depth and distribution for each target in the test sample against multiple matched controls. Neighboring target read depth and distribution and zygosity of any variants within each target region are used to reinforce CNV calls. All CNVs are confirmed using another technology such as aCGH, MLPA, or PCR before they are reported.

This test provides full coverage of all coding exons of the MUTYH gene, plus ~10 bases of flanking noncoding DNA. We define full coverage as >20X NGS reads or Sanger sequencing.

Indications for Test

Candidates for this test are patients with multiple colorectal adenomas–especially if no germ-line APC mutations have been identified or with recessive inheritance of colorectal adenomatous polyposis as suggested by family history. Relatives, particularly siblings, of patients with a verified MUTYH germline mutation are also candidates. This test is specifically designed for heritable germline mutations and is not appropriate for the detection of somatic mutations in tumor tissue.

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
MUTYH 604933
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Disease

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Myh-Associated Polyposis AR 608456

Related Test

Name
Hereditary Endometrial Cancer Sequencing Panel with CNV Detection

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Al-Tassan N, Chmiel NH, Maynard J, Fleming N, Livingston AL, Williams GT, Hodges AK, Davies DR, David SS, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP. 2002. Inherited variants of MYH associated with somatic G:C-->T:A mutations in colorectal tumors. Nat. Genet. 30: 227–232. PubMed ID: 11818965
  • Farrington SM, Tenesa A, Barnetson R, Wiltshire A, Prendergast J, Porteous M, Campbell H, Dunlop MG. 2005. Germline susceptibility to colorectal cancer due to base-excision repair gene defects. The American Journal of Human Genetics 77: 112–119. PubMed ID: 15931596
  • Human Gene Mutation Database (Bio-base).
  • International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors.
  • Jones S, Emmerson P, Maynard J, Best JM, Jordan S, Williams GT, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP. 2002. Biallelic germline mutations in MYH predispose to multiple colorectal adenoma and somatic G: C→ T: A mutations. Human Molecular Genetics 11: 2961–2967. PubMed ID: 12393807
  • Jones S, Lambert S, Williams GT, Best JM, Sampson JR, Cheadle JP. 2004. Increased frequency of the k-ras G12C mutation in MYH polyposis colorectal adenomas. British Journal of Cancer 90: 1591–1593. PubMed ID: 15083190
  • Lipton L, Halford SE, Johnson V, Novelli MR, Jones A, Cummings C, Barclay E, Sieber O, Sadat A, Bisgaard M-L. 2003. Carcinogenesis in MYH-associated polyposis follows a distinct genetic pathway. Cancer research 63: 7595–7599. PubMed ID: 14633673
  • Lu A-L, Bai H, Shi G, Chang D-Y. 2006. MutY and MutY homologs (MYH) in genome maintenance. Front. Biosci. 11: 3062–3080. PubMed ID: 16720376
  • Miyaki M, Iijima T, Yamaguchi T, Hishima T, Tamura K, Utsunomiya J, Mori T. 2005. Germline mutations of the MYH gene in Japanese patients with multiple colorectal adenomas. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 578: 430–433. PubMed ID: 15890374
  • Poulsen MLM, Bisgaard ML. 2008. MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP). Curr. Genomics 9: 420–435. PubMed ID: 19506731
  • Sampson JR, Dolwani S, Jones S, Eccles D, Ellis A, Evans DG, Frayling I, Jordan S, Maher ER, Mak T. 2003. Autosomal recessive colorectal adenomatous polyposis due to inherited mutations of MYH. The Lancet 362: 39–41. PubMed ID: 12853198
  • Sieber OM, Lipton L, Crabtree M, Heinimann K, Fidalgo P, Phillips RK, Bisgaard M-L, Orntoft TF, Aaltonen LA, Hodgson SV. 2003. Multiple colorectal adenomas, classic adenomatous polyposis, and germ-line mutations in MYH. New England Journal of Medicine 348: 791–799. PubMed ID: 12606733
  • Tao H. 2004. A novel splice-site variant of the base excision repair gene MYH is associated with production of an aberrant mRNA transcript encoding a truncated MYH protein not localized in the nucleus. Carcinogenesis 25: 1859–1866. PubMed ID: 15180946
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TEST METHODS

Sequencing and CNV Detection via NextGen Sequencing using PG-Select Capture Probes

Test Procedure

NextGen Sequencing

We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~10 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon.  As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes.  Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).  Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions.  After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).

(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign Variants

Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (http://www.hgvs.org).  Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.

Deletion and Duplication Testing via NGS

Copy number variants (CNVs) such as deletions and duplications are detected from next generation sequencing data. We utilize a CNV calling algorithm that compares mean read depth and distribution for each target in the test sample against multiple matched controls. Neighboring target read depth and distribution, and zygosity of any variants within each target region are used to reinforce CNV calls. All CNVs are confirmed using another technology such as PCR, aCGH or MLPA before they are reported.
Analytical Validity

NextGen Sequencing

As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.

In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.

Deletion and Duplication Testing via NGS
 
In general, sensitivity for single, double, or triple exon CNVs is ~80% and for CNVs of four exon size or larger is close to 100%, but may vary from gene-to-gene based on exon size, depth of coverage, and characteristics of the region.
Analytical Limitations

NextGen Sequencing

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available.  Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.  Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion.   In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele.  Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).

We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~10 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon.  Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants.  In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited.  Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood).   Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics.  However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

Deletion and Duplication Testing via NGS
 
This CNV calling algorithm used in this test detects most deletions and duplications; however aberrations in a small percentage of regions may not be accurately detected due to sequence paralogy (e.g. pseudogenes, segmental duplications), sequence properties, deletion/duplication size (e.g. single vs. two or more exons), and inadequate coverage. 
 
Balanced translocations or inversions within a targeted gene, or large unbalanced translocations or inversions that extend beyond the genomic location of a targeted gene are not detected.
 
In nearly all cases, our ability to determine the exact copy number change within a targeted gene is limited. In particular, when we find copy excess within a targeted gene, we cannot be certain that the region is duplicated, triplicated etc. In many duplication cases, we are unable to determine the genomic location or the orientation of the duplicated segment with respect to the gene. In particular, we often cannot determine if the duplicated segment is inserted in tandem within the gene or inserted elsewhere in the genome. Similarly, we may not be able to determine the orientation of the duplicated segment (direct or inverted), and whether it will disrupt the open reading frame of the given gene.
 
Our ability to detect CNVs due to somatic mosaicism is limited.
Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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