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Waardenburg Syndrome Types I and III via the PAX3 Gene

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
1468 PAX3$680.00 81479 Add to Order
Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 18 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

PAX3 is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause WS type 1 and type 3; molecular genetic testing by sequencing of PAX3 detects more than 90% of disease-causing mutations.

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 PAX3$690.00 81479 Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price

1

$690

2

$730

3

$770

4-10

$840

11-30

$1,290

31-100

$1,670

Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

PAX3 is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause WS type 1 and type 3; molecular genetic testing by deletion/duplication analysis of PAX3 detects about 6% of disease-causing mutations.

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Clinical Features

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and pigmentary changes of the iris such as heterochromia. WS is classified into 4 main types depending on the clinical symptoms and has causative mutations in different genes (Pingault et al., 2010).

WS I : Auditory-pigmentary abnormalities along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi), caused by mutations in PAX3.

WS II : Auditory-pigmentary abnormalities without dystopia canthorum, caused by mutations in MITF, SNAI2, and SOX10.

WS III : Type I with musculo-skeletal abnormalities of the upper limb  (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome) caused by mutations in PAX3.

WS IV : Type II with Hirschsprung disease (Waardenburg-Shah syndrome), caused by mutations in EDN3, EDNRB, and SOX10.

WS I: The hearing loss observed in approximately 60% of affected individuals is congenital, typically non-progressive, either unilateral or bilateral, and sensorineural. The majority of individuals with WS1 have either a white forelock or early graying of the scalp hair before age 30 years. The classic white forelock observed in approximately 45% of individuals is the most common hair pigmentation anomaly seen in WS1. Affected individuals may have complete heterochromia iridium, partial/segmental heterochromia, or hypoplastic or brilliant blue irides. Congenital leukoderma is frequently seen on the face, trunk, or limbs (Milunsky et al, Gene Reviews).

WS III: The musculo-skeletal abnormalities present with flexion contractures and muscle hypoplasia of the upper limb with a broad range of severity. Other signs such as campylodactly may be associated.

Genetics

WS type 1 is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by heterozygous mutations in PAX3, while WS type 3 can be caused by heterozygous or homozygous mutations in PAX3 suggesting an autosomal dominant or recessive mode of inheritance. PAX3 belongs to a family of homeobox transcription factor genes that play a critical role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development. The PAX3 protein directs the activity of other genes that signal neural crest cells to form specialized tissues or cell types such as some nerve tissue, bones in the face and skull (craniofacial bones), and pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Disruption or loss of the PAX3 protein results in the manifestation of the limb and facial features that are unique to Waardenburg syndrome, types I and III. Mutations in PAX3 are also known to be causative for craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. The types of causative mutations reported in PAX3 include missense, nonsense, splicing, and inframe deletions.

Testing Strategy

This test involves bidirectional Sanger DNA sequencing of all coding exons of PAX3. The entire coding region and ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA on either side of each splice site are sequenced. We will also sequence any single exon (Test #100) or pair of exons (Test #200) in family members of patients with known mutations or to confirm research results.

Indications for Test

Diagnostic criteria for Waardenburg syndrome has been proposed by the Waardenburg Consortium (Farrer et al., 1992). An individual must have two major criteria or one major plus two minor criteria to be considered affected.

Major Criteria:

Congenital sensorineural hearing loss White forelock, hair hypopigmentation Pigmentation abnormality of the iris: Complete heterochromia iridum (irides of different color), Partial/segmental heterochromia (two different colors in same iris, typically brown and blue), Hypoplastic blue irides, or brilliant blue irides Dystopia canthorum, W index >1.95 Affected first-degree relative.

Minor Criteria

Skin hypopigmentation (congenital leukoderma), Synophrys/medial eyebrow flare, Broad/high nasal root, prominent columella, Hypoplastic alae nasi, Premature gray hair (age of < 30 years).

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
PAX3 606597
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Related Test

Name
Waardenburg Syndrome Sequencing Panel

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Farrer LA, Grundfast KM, Amos J, Arnos KS, Asher JH, Beighton P, Diehl SR, Fex J, Foy C, Friedman TB, Greenberg J, Hoth C, et al. 1992. Waardenberg syndrome (WS) type I is caused by defects at multiple loci, one of which is near ALPP on chromosome 2: First report of the WS consortium. Am J Hum Genet 50: 902–913. PubMed ID: 1349198
  • Milunsky JM. 2011. Waardenburg Syndrome Type I. GeneReviews. PubMed ID: 20301703
  • Pingault V, Ente D, Dastot-Le Moal F, Goossens M, Marlin S, Bondurand N. 2010. Review and update of mutations causing Waardenburg syndrome. Human Mutation 31: 391–406. PubMed ID: 20127975
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Bi-Directional Sanger Sequencing

Test Procedure

Nomenclature for sequence variants was from the Human Genome Variation Society (http://www.hgvs.org).  As required, DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  PCR is used to amplify the indicated exons plus additional flanking non-coding sequence.  After cleaning of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  Products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In most cases, sequencing is performed in both forward and reverse directions; in some cases, sequencing is performed twice in either the forward or reverse directions.  In nearly all cases, the full coding region of each exon as well as 20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking the exon are sequenced.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, we compared 17.37 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 12 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 8,800 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was due to sequence analysis error.

Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger heterozygous insertions may not be detected. All homozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 300 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger homozygous insertions may masquerade as homozygous deletions (PCR failure).

Analytical Limitations

In exons where our sequencing did not reveal any variation between the two alleles, we cannot be certain that we were able to PCR amplify both of the patient’s alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due for example to a deletion or a large insertion. In these cases, the report contains no information about the second allele.

Similarly, our sequencing tests have almost no power to detect duplications, triplications, etc. of the gene sequences.

In most cases, only the indicated exons and roughly 20 bp of flanking non-coding sequence on each side are analyzed. Test reports contain little or no information about other portions of the gene, including many regulatory regions.

In nearly all cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants, due for example to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR and cycle sequencing.

Unless otherwise indicated, the sequence data that we report are based on DNA isolated from a specific tissue (usually leukocytes). Test reports contain no information about gene sequences in other tissues.

Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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