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Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type I via the CDAN1 Gene

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
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TEST METHODS

NGS Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
4117 CDAN1$990.00 81479 Add to Order
Pricing Comment

Our most cost-effective testing approach is NextGen sequencing with Sanger sequencing supplemented as needed to ensure sufficient coverage and to confirm NextGen calls that are pathogenic, likely pathogenic or of uncertain significance. If, however, full gene Sanger sequencing only is desired (for purposes of insurance billing or STAT turnaround time for example), please see link below for Test Code, pricing, and turnaround time information.

For Sanger Sequencing click here.
Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Mutations in the CDAN1 gene were identified in 90% of type I CDA cases (Tamary and Dgany 2009). Analytical sensitivity for detection of mutation in the CDAN1 gene is probably >95% as gross deletions have only been reported in a sole case (Heimpel et al. 2006).

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 CDAN1$690.00 81479 Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price

1

$690

2

$730

3

$770

4-10

$840

11-30

$1,290

31-100

$1,670

Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Features

Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia (CDA) is a disorder that affects erythropoiesis leading to anemia. There are four types of CDA caused by mutations in different genes. Overlapping symptoms include jaundice and splenomegaly. Chronic anemia can cause secondary hemochromatosis and lead to tissue damage and organ failure in severe cases. Genetics is helpful in differential diagnosis of CDA types and from other broader syndromes where CDA also occurs including Majeed Syndrome, Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency, and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (Iolascon et al. 2012; Tamary and Dgany 2009).

Type I CDA is the second most prevalent form of the disease and is characterized by moderate to severe anemia through mutations in either the CDAN1 or C15ORF41 genes. Diagnosis is typically during childhood, but can be made before birth in severe cases. Type I CDA is occasionally associated with skeletal abnormalities in the hands and feet, nail hypoplasia, and scoliosis (Tamary and Dgany 2009).

Genetics

Type I CDA is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner primarily through mutations in the CDAN1 gene. However, mutations in the C15ORF41 gene have been described in three families with type I CDA (Babbs et al. 2013). There is no clear phenotype-genotype correlation as marked clinical variability is seen among patients with the same pathogenic variants. Missense, frameshift, nonsense, splice site and small insertion/deletion mutations account for 60%, 15%, 10%, 10%, and 5% of the causative variants in the CDAN1 gene (Dgany et al. 2002; Tamary and Dgany et al. 2009; Heimpel et al. 2006). A sole report has identified a deletion encompassing exon 28 (Heimpel et al. 2006). No patients are documented being homozygous for null mutations in the CDAN1 gene. Consistent with this notion, Cdan1 knockout mice die in utero prior to erythropoiesis onset (Renella et al. 2011). The majority of the causative mutations are in exons 14 and 24 with other mutations occurring in the latter half of the coding region (Dgany et al. 2002). In 28% of type I CDA individuals, only one pathogenic variant in the CDAN1 gene is identified (Iolascon et al. 2012). The CDAN1 gene encodes the protein codanin-1 which modulates S-phase during DNA replication through regulation of a chromatin bound histone chaperone, Asf1 (Ask et al. 2012).

Testing Strategy

For this NextGen test, the full coding regions plus ~20 bp of non-coding DNA flanking each exon are sequenced for the gene listed below. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

Indications for Test

Candidates have clinical features consistent with CDA including jaundice, anemia, splenomegaly, gallstones, and secondary hemochromatosis. Bone marrow morphology analysis of patients with type I CDA indicates abnormal chromatin bridging by light microscopy and spongy heterochromatin with invagination of the cytoplasm into the nucleus by electron microscopy (Iolascon et al. 2012).

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
CDAN1 607465
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Disease

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Dyserythropoietic Anemia, Congenital, Type Ia 224120

Related Test

Name
Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Sequencing Panel

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Ask K, Jasencakova Z, Menard P, Feng Y, Almouzni G, Groth A. 2012. Codanin-1, mutated in the anaemic disease CDAI, regulates Asf1 function in S-phase histone supply. The EMBO journal 31: 2013–2023. PubMed ID: 22407294
  • Babbs C, Roberts NA, Sanchez-Pulido L, McGowan SJ, Ahmed MR, Brown JM, Sabry MA, WGS500 Consortium, Bentley DR, McVean GA, Donnelly P, Gileadi O, et al. 2013. Homozygous mutations in a predicted endonuclease are a novel cause of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I. Haematologica 98: 1383–1387. PubMed ID: 23716552
  • Dgany O, Avidan N, Delaunay J, Krasnov T, Shalmon L, Shalev H, Eidelitz-Markus T, Kapelushnik J, Cattan D, Pariente A, others. 2002. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I is caused by mutations in codanin-1. The American Journal of Human Genetics 71: 1467–1474. PubMed ID: 12434312
  • Heimpel H, Schwarz K, Ebnöther M, Goede JS, Heydrich D, Kamp T, Plaumann L, Rath B, Roessler J, Schildknecht O, Schmid M, Wuillemin W, Einsiedler B, Leichtle R, Tamary H, Kohne E. 2006. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I (CDA I): molecular genetics, clinical appearance, and prognosis based on long-term observation. Blood 107: 334–340. PubMed ID: 16141353
  • Iolascon A, Esposito MR, Russo R. 2012. Clinical aspects and pathogenesis of congenital dyserythropoietic anemias: from morphology to molecular approach. Haematologica 97: 1786–1794. PubMed ID: 23940284
  • Renella R, Roberts NA, Brown JM, Gobbi M De, Bird LE, Hassanali T, Sharpe JA, Sloane-Stanley J, Ferguson DJ, Cordell J, others. 2011. Codanin-1 mutations in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type 1 affect HP1α localization in erythroblasts. Blood 117: 6928–6938. PubMed ID: 21364188
  • Tamary H, Dgany O. 2009. Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type I. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong C-T, Smith RJ, and Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews(®), Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PubMed ID: 20301759
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TEST METHODS

NextGen Sequencing using PG-Select Capture Probes

Test Procedure

We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon.  As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes.  Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).  Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing.  All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions.  After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.

Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).

(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign, Common Variants

Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (http://www.hgvs.org).  Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.

In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.   

Analytical Limitations

Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available.  Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.

When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles.  Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion.   In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele.  Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).

We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon.  Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.

In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants.  In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited.  Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.

Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood).   Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.

We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.

Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.

We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics.  However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.

Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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