Autosomal Recessive Hyper IgE Syndrome via the DOCK8 Gene
- Summary and Pricing
- Clinical Features and Genetics
|Test Code||Test||Individual Gene Price||CPT Code Copy CPT Codes|
Our most cost-effective testing approach is NextGen sequencing with Sanger sequencing supplemented as needed to ensure sufficient coverage and to confirm NextGen calls that are pathogenic, likely pathogenic or of uncertain significance. If, however, full gene Sanger sequencing only is desired (for purposes of insurance billing or STAT turnaround time for example), please see link below for Test Code, pricing, and turnaround time information.
For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.
The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.
In a study of 60 families with 82 patients with AR-HIES, pathogenic variants in the DOCK8 gene were found in 78% of cases. Of those patients, gross deletions ranging from a single exon to the whole gene were found in 32 of 64 patients (Engelhardt et al. 2015). Analytical sensitivity is therefore about ~50% for detection of pathogenic mutations in the DOCK8 gene by sequencing.
Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH
|Test Code||Test||Individual Gene Price||CPT Code Copy CPT Codes|
# of Genes Ordered
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The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.
Hyper-IgE Syndrome (HIES), also known as Job’s syndrome and Buckley’s syndrome, is characterized by a triad of symptoms including recurrent staphylococcal abscesses, recurrent airway infections, and increased immunoglobin E (>2000 U/ml) in serum (Szczawinska-Poplonyk et al 2011). Patients with autosomal recessive HIES (AR-HIES) are also more susceptible to food allergies, hemolytic anemia, vasculitis, and have a higher frequency of neurological complications including encephalitis, and vascular brain lesions. Connective tissue and bone abnormalities are typically not observed in AR-HIES (Engelhardt et al 2015). Genetic testing is helpful in the differential diagnosis of HIES subtypes and from other similar disorders including Omenn Syndrome, common variable immunodeficiency, atopic dermatitis, chronic granulomatous disease, and aspergillosis.
AR-HIES is primarily due to pathogenic variants in the DOCK8 gene. There have been two reported cases of AR-HIES due to pathogenic variants in the TYK2 gene. In a study of 64 patients with DOCK8 deficiency, gross deletions encompassing one or more exons, small insertions/deletions, nonsense and splice site variants accounted for 68%, 6%, 14% and 12% of causative variants respectively. Only 3 causative missense variants have been reported to date (Sanal et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2009; Jing et al. 2014; Engelhardt et al. 2015). In one case, a patient with AR-HIES also presented with mental retardation due to a balanced translocation of the DOCK8 gene with the X chromosome (Griggs et al. 2008). The DOCK8 gene encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and interacts with Rho GTPase to regulate its function. In B-cells, DOCK8 functions as an adapter in Toll-like receptor/MyD88 signaling to drive proliferation and differentiation (Jabara et al. 2012).
For this NextGen test, the full coding regions plus ~20 bp of non-coding DNA flanking each exon are sequenced for the gene listed below. Sequencing is accomplished by capturing specific regions with an optimized solution-based hybridization kit, followed by massively parallel sequencing of the captured DNA fragments. Additional Sanger sequencing is performed for any regions not captured or with insufficient number of sequence reads. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
Indications for Test
Candidates for this test are patients showing IgE levels higher than 2000 U/ml, recurrent lung infections, and staphylococcal abscesses (Szczawinska-Poplonyk et al 2011). Other laboratory findings often include candidiasis, eczema, eosinophilia, decreased T and B cell counts, low serum IgM and variable IgG antibody responses (Zhang et al. 2009).
|Official Gene Symbol||OMIM ID|
|Hyperimmunoglobulin E Recurrent Infection Syndrome, Autosomal Recessive||243700|
|Hyper IgE Syndrome Sequencing Panel|
- Genetic Counselor Team - email@example.com
- Luke Drury, PhD - firstname.lastname@example.org
- Engelhardt KR, Gertz ME, Keles S, Schäffer AA, Sigmund EC, Glocker C, Saghafi S, Pourpak Z, Ceja R, Sassi A, Graham LE, Massaad MJ, Mellouli F, Ben-Mustapha I, Khemiri M, Kilic SS, Etzioni A, Freeman AF, Thiel J4, Schulze I, Al-Herz W, Metin A, Sanal Ö, Tezcan I, Yeganeh M, Niehues T, Dueckers G, Weinspach S, Patiroglu T, Unal E, Dasouki M, Yilmaz M, Genel F, Aytekin C, Kutukculer N, Somer A, Kilic M, Reisli I, Camcioglu Y, Gennery AR, Cant AJ, Jones A, Gaspar BH, Arkwright PD, Pietrogrande MC, Baz Z, Al-Tamemi S, Lougaris V, Lefranc G, Megarbane A, Boutros J, Galal N, Bejaoui M, Barbouche MR, Geha RS, Chatila TA, Grimbacher B. 2015. The extended clinical phenotype of 64 patients with dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. PubMed ID: 25724123
- Griggs BL, Ladd S, Saul RA, DuPont BR, Srivastava AK. 2008. Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 is disrupted in two patients with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Genomics 91: 195–202. PubMed ID: 18060736
- Jabara HH, McDonald DR, Janssen E, Massaad MJ, Ramesh N, Borzutzky A, Rauter I, Benson H, Schneider L, Baxi S, Recher M, Notarangelo LD, Wakim R, Dbaibo G, Dasouki M, Al-Herz W, Barlan I, Baris S, Kutukculer N, Ochs HD, Plebani A, Kanariou M, Lefranc G, Reisli I, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock D, Manis J, Keles S, Ceja R, Chatila TA, Geha RS. 2012. DOCK8 functions as an adaptor that links TLR-MyD88 signaling to B cell activation. Nature Immunology 13: 612–620. PubMed ID: 22581261
- Jing H, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Hill BJ, Dove CG, Gelfand EW, Atkinson TP, Uzel G, Matthews HF, Mustillo PJ, Lewis DB, Kavadas FD, Hanson IC, Kumar AR, Geha RS, Douek DC, Holland SM, Freeman AF, Su HC. 2014. Somatic reversion in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 immunodeficiency modulates disease phenotype. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 133: 1667–1675. PubMed ID: 24797421
- Sanal O, Jing H, Ozgur T, Ayvaz D, Strauss-Albee DM, Ersoy-Evans S, Tezcan I, Turkkani G, Matthews HF, Haliloglu G, Yuce A, Yalcin B, Gokoz O, Oguz KK, Su HC. 2012. Additional Diverse Findings Expand the Clinical Presentation of DOCK8 Deficiency. Journal of Clinical Immunology 32: 698–708. PubMed ID: 22476911
- Szczawinska-Poplonyk A, Kycler Z, Pietrucha B, Heropolitanska-Pliszka E, Breborowicz A, Gerreth K. 2011. The hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome--clinical manifestation diversity in primary immune deficiency. Orphanet J Rare Dis 6: 76. PubMed ID: 22085750
- Zhang Q, Davis JC, Lamborn IT, Freeman AF, Jing H, Favreau AJ, Matthews HF, Davis J, Turner ML, Uzel G, Holland SM, Su HC. 2009. Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with DOCK8 Mutations. New England Journal of Medicine 361: 2046–2055. PubMed ID: 19776401
We use a combination of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing technologies to cover the full coding regions of the listed genes plus ~20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking each exon. As required, genomic DNA is extracted from the patient specimen. For NGS, patient DNA corresponding to these regions is captured using an optimized set of DNA hybridization probes. Captured DNA is sequenced using Illumina’s Reversible Dye Terminator (RDT) platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Regions with insufficient coverage by NGS are covered by Sanger sequencing. All pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of uncertain significance are confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
For Sanger sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify targeted regions. After purification of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit. PCR products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer. In nearly all cases, cycle sequencing is performed separately in both the forward and reverse directions.
Patient DNA sequence is aligned to the genomic reference sequence for the indicated gene region(s). All differences from the reference sequences (sequence variants) are assigned to one of five interpretation categories, listed below, per ACMG Guidelines (Richards et al. 2015).
(1) Pathogenic Variants
(2) Likely Pathogenic Variants
(3) Variants of Uncertain Significance
(4) Likely Benign Variants
(5) Benign, Common Variants
Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) recommendations are used to describe sequence variants (http://www.hgvs.org). Rare variants and undocumented variants are nearly always classified as likely benign if there is no indication that they alter protein sequence or disrupt splicing.
As of March 2016, 6.36 Mb of sequence (83 genes, 1557 exons) generated in our lab was compared between Sanger and NextGen methodologies. We detected no differences between the two methods. The comparison involved 6400 total sequence variants (differences from the reference sequences). Of these, 6144 were nucleotide substitutions and 256 were insertions or deletions. About 65% of the variants were heterozygous and 35% homozygous. The insertions and deletions ranged in length from 1 to over 100 nucleotides.
In silico validation of insertions and deletions in 20 replicates of 5 genes was also performed. The validation included insertions and deletions of lengths between 1 and 100 nucleotides. Insertions tested in silico: 2200 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 625 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 29 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 25 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 23 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 98 nucleotides. All insertions were detected. Deletions tested in silico: 1813 between 1 and 5 nucleotides, 97 between 6 and 10 nucleotides, 32 between 11 and 20 nucleotides, 20 between 21 and 49 nucleotides, and 39 at or greater than 50 nucleotides, with the largest at 96 nucleotides. All deletions less than 50 nucleotides in length were detected, 13 greater than 50 nucleotides in length were missed. Our standard NextGen sequence variant calling algorithms are generally not capable of detecting insertions (duplications) or heterozygous deletions greater than 100 nucleotides. Large homozygous deletions appear to be detectable.
Interpretation of the test results is limited by the information that is currently available. Better interpretation should be possible in the future as more data and knowledge about human genetics and this specific disorder are accumulated.
When Sanger sequencing does not reveal any difference from the reference sequence, or when a sequence variant is homozygous, we cannot be certain that we were able to detect both patient alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due to a large deletion or insertion. In these cases, the report will contain no information about the second allele. Our Sanger and NGS Sequencing tests are generally not capable of detecting Copy Number Variants (CNVs).
We sequence all coding exons for each given transcript, plus ~20 bp of flanking non-coding DNA for each exon. Test reports contain no information about other portions of the gene, such as regulatory domains, deep intronic regions or any currently uncharacterized alternative exons.
In most cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.
Our ability to detect minor sequence variants due to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.
Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR.
Unless otherwise indicated, DNA sequence data is obtained from a specific cell-type (usually leukocytes from whole blood). Test reports contain no information about the DNA sequence in other cell-types.
We cannot be certain that the reference sequences are correct.
Rare, low probability interpretations of sequencing results, such as for example the occurrence of de novo mutations in recessive disorders, are generally not included in the reports.
We have confidence in our ability to track a specimen once it has been received by PreventionGenetics. However, we take no responsibility for any specimen labeling errors that occur before the sample arrives at PreventionGenetics.
Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.
PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.
Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.
This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.
aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.
Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.
The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.
myPrevent - Online Ordering
- The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
- Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
- A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
- Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
- All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.
(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)
- Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
- For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
- Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
- Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
- During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
- In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
- At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
- If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
- Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.
(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)
- Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
- For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
- DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
- Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
- We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.
(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)
- PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
- Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
- Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
- Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
- Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
- Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
- We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.