Forms

Alzheimer's Disease, Familial via the APP Gene, Exons 16 and 17

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Sequencing

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
604 APP$370.00 81403 Add to Order
Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 18 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

Point mutations in the APP gene are identified in ~ 15% of FAD cases (Wallon et al. 2012; Janssen et al. 2003).

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 APP$690.00 81479 Add to Order
Pricing Comment

# of Genes Ordered

Total Price

1

$690

2

$730

3

$770

4-10

$840

11-30

$1,290

31-100

$1,670

Over 100

Call for quote

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Features

Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of dementia at a relatively young age. Dementia initially presents in FAD patients as short term memory problems or disorientation between 30 and 60 years of age. Cognitive decline is observed over the next 10-20 years with apraxia, progressive memory loss and impaired spatial skills being common presentations (Wallon et al. 2012). Motor disturbances such as cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraparesis are also observed in a subset of patients. The key neuropathology of FAD includes: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal loss and brain atrophy (Wu et al. 2012). An important feature of the FAD diagnosis is that an individual has at least one affected family member.

In addition to FAD, select mutations in the APP gene can also cause severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA; OMIM:605714)  where amyloid fibrils accumulate in blood vessels and can lead to cerebral hemorrhage and stroke (Revesz et al. 2009).

Genetics

FAD is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and can be caused by mutations in the APP gene. Almost all reported APP mutations are missense, frameshift and small deletion variants contained within Exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene, except rare large duplications. These variants disrupt processing of APP into mature amyloid-beta protein (Janssen et al. 2003; Mullan et al. 1992; Tomiyama et al. 2008). Large duplications encompassing the entire APP gene have also been identified in FAD patients (McNaughton et al. 2012). A rare recessive mutation in the APP gene was reported to cause FAD (Di Fede et al. 2009).

APP encodes amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP). APP is post-translationally processed into two amyloid-beta isoforms: AB40 and AB42. The gamma-secretase complex that processes APP contains the proteins PSEN1 and PSEN2, which also play a role in FAD pathogenesis (Suárez-Calvet et al. 2014). Mutations in the APP gene that disrupt the gamma-secretase cleavage site can result in increased levels of the AB42 isoform relative to the AB40 isoform. This imbalance promotes amyloid-beta aggregation (Kumar-Singh et al. 2000). Mutations in the APP gene also result in hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule associated protein, tau (Umeda et al. 2014). Hyperphosphorylation causes tau to form long filaments and neurofibrillary tangles. The presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles leads to neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death, which underlie the dementia phenotype.

Testing Strategy

Testing involves PCR amplification from genomic DNA and bidirectional Sanger sequencing of coding exons 16 and 17 and ~20bp of adjacent noncoding sequences. This testing strategy will reveal coding sequence changes, splice site mutations and small insertions or deletions in the APP gene, but will not detect large duplications or deletions of the APP locus. We will also sequence any single exon (Test #100) in family members of patients with a known mutation or to confirm research results.

Indications for Test

APP testing should be considered for individuals with early onset dementia who have at least one affected family member and for which no PSEN1 mutation has been identified (Loy et al. 2013). APP sequencing can also be used to determine carrier status of individuals for a known familial mutation.

Gene

Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
APP 104760
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT

Disease

Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, App-Related 605714

Related Test

Name
Alzheimer Disease, Familial or Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy via the APP Gene

CONTACTS

Genetic Counselors
Geneticist
Citations
  • Di Fede G. et al. 2009. Science. 323: 1473-7. PubMed ID: 19286555
  • Janssen JC. et al. 2003. Neurology. 60: 235-9 PubMed ID: 12552037
  • Kumar-Singh S. et al. 2000. Human Molecular Genetics. 9: 2589-98. PubMed ID: 11063718
  • Loy CT. et al. 2014. Lancet. 383: 828-40. PubMed ID: 23927914
  • McNaughton D. et al. 2012. Neurobiology of Aging. 33: 426.e13-426.e21 PubMed ID: 21193246
  • Mullan M. et al. 1992. Nature Genetics. 1: 345-7. PubMed ID: 1302033
  • Revesz T. et al. 2009. Acta Neuropathologica. 118: 115-130 PubMed ID: 19225789
  • Suárez-Calvet M. et al. 2014. Journal of Neurochemistry. 128: 330-9 PubMed ID: 24117942
  • Tomiyama T. et al. 2008. Annals of Neurology. 63: 377-87. PubMed ID: 18300294
  • Umeda T. et al. 2014. Acta Neuropathologica. 127: 685-98. PubMed ID: 24531886
  • Wallon D. et al. 2012. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 30: 847–856 PubMed ID: 22475797
  • Wu L. et al. 2012. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 39: 436–445 PubMed ID: 22728850
Order Kits
TEST METHODS

Bi-Directional Sanger Sequencing

Test Procedure

Nomenclature for sequence variants was from the Human Genome Variation Society (http://www.hgvs.org).  As required, DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  PCR is used to amplify the indicated exons plus additional flanking non-coding sequence.  After cleaning of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  Products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In most cases, sequencing is performed in both forward and reverse directions; in some cases, sequencing is performed twice in either the forward or reverse directions.  In nearly all cases, the full coding region of each exon as well as 20 bases of non-coding DNA flanking the exon are sequenced.

Analytical Validity

As of March 2016, we compared 17.37 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 12 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 8,800 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was due to sequence analysis error.

Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger heterozygous insertions may not be detected. All homozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 300 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger homozygous insertions may masquerade as homozygous deletions (PCR failure).

Analytical Limitations

In exons where our sequencing did not reveal any variation between the two alleles, we cannot be certain that we were able to PCR amplify both of the patient’s alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due for example to a deletion or a large insertion. In these cases, the report contains no information about the second allele.

Similarly, our sequencing tests have almost no power to detect duplications, triplications, etc. of the gene sequences.

In most cases, only the indicated exons and roughly 20 bp of flanking non-coding sequence on each side are analyzed. Test reports contain little or no information about other portions of the gene, including many regulatory regions.

In nearly all cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants, due for example to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR and cycle sequencing.

Unless otherwise indicated, the sequence data that we report are based on DNA isolated from a specific tissue (usually leukocytes). Test reports contain no information about gene sequences in other tissues.

Deletion/Duplication Testing Via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

Order Kits

Ordering Options


myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
REQUISITION FORM
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.

SPECIMEN TYPES
WHOLE BLOOD

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.

DNA

(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.

CELL CULTURE

(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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