Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome or Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Deficiency via the SLC16A2 Gene

  • Summary and Pricing
  • Clinical Features and Genetics
  • Citations
  • Methods
  • Ordering/Specimens
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Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
2086 SLC16A2$680.00 81405 Add to Order
Targeted Testing

For ordering targeted known variants, please proceed to our Targeted Variants landing page.

Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 18 days.

Clinical Sensitivity

To date, SLC16A2 is the only gene reported to be responsible for Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. Clinical sensitivity of SLC16A2 in a large cohort of patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome relevant phenotypes is unavailable in the literature, because most of studies are case reports. Clinical sensitivity should be high in patients who meet clinical and diagnostic criteria for this disorder.

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Deletion/Duplication Testing via aCGH

Test Code Test Copy GenesIndividual Gene PriceCPT Code Copy CPT Codes
600 SLC16A2$690.00 81404 Add to Order
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Turnaround Time

The great majority of tests are completed within 28 days.

Clinical Features

Monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency results in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (Schwartz et al. 2005). Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is characterized by infancy and childhood severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, dysarthria or absence of speech, involuntary movements, muscle hypoplasia, delay of developmental milestone, and spastic paraplegia with hyperreflexia, clonus, and Babinski reflexes. Of note, the affected males usually present disturbances in blood levels of thyroid hormones such as high free triiodothyronine T3 and low free T4 levels in serum. However, their serum TSH levels and thyroid functions are normal. The alterations in free T3 and free T4 levels provide a convenient biomarker of selecting males with intellectual disability for molecular testing in monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency (Müller and Heuer 2012).


Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner and is caused by pathogenic variants in the SLC16A2 gene encoding monocarboxylate transporter 8. Penetrance is complete, however, the severity is variable (Armour et al. 2015). Pathogenic variants in SLC16A2 include missense, nonsense, small deletion/insertion, splice site variants, and large deletions/duplications (Schwartz et al. 2005; Zung et al. 2011; Kersseboom et al. 2013; Yamamoto et al. 2013; Fischer et al. 2015). Overall, monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency results in tissue-specific alterations in transportation, metabolism and targeted action of thyroid hormone. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 is highly expressed in different tissues such as liver, kidney, thyroid, pituitary and brain (Müller and Heuer 2012). The function of this transporter is to transport triiodothyronine into neurons. Thyroid hormone is essential during different stages in brain development. Loss of transporter function causes intellectual disability and leads to elevated T3 and lowered T4 levels in the blood. Neurological involvement of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome occurs predominantly in males. Manifestation in females is doubtful, but has not been studied systematically or longitudinally. Female carriers have abnormal thyroid hormone tests with no neurologic deficits (Schwartz et al 2005). The first female case with full-blown Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome was reported due to a de novo translocation t(X;9)(q13.2;p24) that interrupted the SLC16A2 gene. In addition, this patient's fibroblasts showed complete loss of protein expression attributed to skewed X inactivation (Frints et al. 2008).

Testing Strategy

Testing is accomplished by amplifying each coding exon of the SLC16A2 gene and ~10 bp of adjacent noncoding sequence, then determining the nucleotide sequence using standard Sanger dideoxy sequencing methods and a capillary electrophoresis instrument. We will also sequence any single exon (Test #100) in family members of patients with a known mutation or to confirm research results.

Indications for Test

SLC16A2 sequencing test is recommended for patients who are suspected to have Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome.


Official Gene Symbol OMIM ID
SLC16A2 300095
Inheritance Abbreviation
Autosomal Dominant AD
Autosomal Recessive AR
X-Linked XL
Mitochondrial MT


Name Inheritance OMIM ID
Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome 300523

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Genetic Counselors
  • Armour C.M. et al. 2015. Plos One. 10: e0139343. PubMed ID: 26426690
  • Fischer J. et al. 2015. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 54: 39-50. PubMed ID: 25527620
  • Frints S.G. et al. 2008. European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg. 16: 1029-37. PubMed ID: 18398436
  • Kersseboom S. et al. 2013. Molecular Endocrinology (baltimore, Md.). 27: 801-13. PubMed ID: 23550058
  • Müller J., Heuer H. 2012. European Thyroid Journal. 1: 72-9. PubMed ID: 24783000
  • Schwartz C.E. et al. 2005. American Journal of Human Genetics. 77: 41-53. PubMed ID: 15889350
  • Yamamoto S. et al. 2013. Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology : Case Reports and Clinical Investigations : Official Journal of the Japanese Society For Pediatric Endocrinology. 22: 83-6. PubMed ID: 24170966
  • Zung A. et al. 2011. European Journal of Endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. 165: 823-30. PubMed ID: 21896621
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Bi-Directional Sanger Sequencing

Test Procedure

Nomenclature for sequence variants was from the Human Genome Variation Society (  As required, DNA is extracted from the patient specimen.  PCR is used to amplify the indicated exons plus additional flanking non-coding sequence.  After cleaning of the PCR products, cycle sequencing is carried out using the ABI Big Dye Terminator v.3.0 kit.  Products are resolved by electrophoresis on an ABI 3730xl capillary sequencer.  In most cases, sequencing is performed in both forward and reverse directions; in some cases, sequencing is performed twice in either the forward or reverse directions.  In nearly all cases, the full coding region of each exon as well as 10 bases of non-coding DNA flanking the exon are sequenced.

Analytical Validity

As of February 2018, we compared 26.8 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 14 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 14,300 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was an error in analysis of sequence data.

Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger heterozygous insertions may not be detected. All homozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 300 nucleotides in length appear to be detectable. Larger homozygous insertions may masquerade as homozygous deletions (PCR failure).

Analytical Limitations

In exons where our sequencing did not reveal any variation between the two alleles, we cannot be certain that we were able to PCR amplify both of the patient’s alleles. Occasionally, a patient may carry an allele which does not amplify, due for example to a deletion or a large insertion. In these cases, the report contains no information about the second allele.

Similarly, our sequencing tests have almost no power to detect duplications, triplications, etc. of the gene sequences.

In most cases, only the indicated exons and roughly 10 bp of flanking non-coding sequence on each side are analyzed. Test reports contain little or no information about other portions of the gene, including many regulatory regions.

In nearly all cases, we are unable to determine the phase of sequence variants. In particular, when we find two likely causative mutations for recessive disorders, we cannot be certain that the mutations are on different alleles.

Our ability to detect minor sequence variants, due for example to somatic mosaicism is limited. Sequence variants that are present in less than 50% of the patient’s nucleated cells may not be detected.

Runs of mononucleotide repeats (eg (A)n or (T)n) with n >8 in the reference sequence are generally not analyzed because of strand slippage during PCR and cycle sequencing.

Unless otherwise indicated, the sequence data that we report are based on DNA isolated from a specific tissue (usually leukocytes). Test reports contain no information about gene sequences in other tissues.

Deletion/Duplication Testing via Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Test Procedure

Equal amounts of genomic DNA from the patient and a gender matched reference sample are amplified and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, respectively. To prevent any sample cross contamination, a unique sample tracking control is added into each patient sample. Each labeled patient product is then purified, quantified, and combined with the same amount of reference product. The combined sample is loaded onto the designed array and hybridized for at least 22-42 hours at 65°C. Arrays are then washed and scanned immediately with 2.5 µM resolution. Only data for the gene(s) of interest for each patient are extracted and analyzed.

Analytical Validity

PreventionGenetics' high density gene-centric custom designed aCGH enables the detection of relatively small deletions and duplications within a single exon of a given gene or deletions and duplications encompassing the entire gene. PreventionGenetics has established and verified this test's accuracy and precision.

Analytical Limitations

Our dense probe coverage may allow detection of deletions/duplications down to 100 bp; however due to limitations and probe spacing this cannot be guaranteed across all exons of all genes. Therefore, some copy number changes smaller than 100-300 bp within a targeted large exon may not be detected by our array.

This array may not detect deletions and duplications present at low levels of mosaicism or those present in genes that have pseudogene copies or repeats elsewhere in the genome.

aCGH will not detect balanced translocations, inversions, or point mutations that may be responsible for the clinical phenotype.

Breakpoints, if occurring outside the targeted gene, may be hard to define.

The sensitivity of this assay may be reduced when DNA is extracted by an outside laboratory.

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Ordering Options

myPrevent - Online Ordering
  • The test can be added to your online orders in the Summary and Pricing section.
  • Once the test has been added log in to myPrevent to fill out an online requisition form.
  • A completed requisition form must accompany all specimens.
  • Billing information along with specimen and shipping instructions are within the requisition form.
  • All testing must be ordered by a qualified healthcare provider.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Collect 3 ml -5 ml (5 ml preferred) of whole blood in EDTA (purple top tube) or ACD (yellow top tube). For Test #500-DNA Banking only, collect 10 ml -20 ml of whole blood.
  • For small babies, we require a minimum of 1 ml of blood.
  • Only one blood tube is required for multiple tests.
  • Ship blood tubes at room temperature in an insulated container. Do not freeze blood.
  • During hot weather, include a frozen ice pack in the shipping container. Place a paper towel or other thin material between the ice pack and the blood tube.
  • In cold weather, include an unfrozen ice pack in the shipping container as insulation.
  • At room temperature, blood specimen is stable for up to 48 hours.
  • If refrigerated, blood specimen is stable for up to one week.
  • Label the tube with the patient name, date of birth and/or ID number.


(Delivery accepted Monday - Saturday)

  • Send in screw cap tube at least 5 µg -10 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 20 µg/ml for NGS and Sanger tests and at least 5 µg of purified DNA at a concentration of at least 100 µg/ml for gene-centric aCGH, MLPA, and CMA tests, minimum 2 µg for limited specimens.
  • For requests requiring more than one test, send an additional 5 µg DNA per test ordered when possible.
  • DNA may be shipped at room temperature.
  • Label the tube with the composition of the solute, DNA concentration as well as the patient’s name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We only accept genomic DNA for testing. We do NOT accept products of whole genome amplification reactions or other amplification reactions.


(Delivery preferred Monday - Thursday)

  • PreventionGenetics should be notified in advance of arrival of a cell culture.
  • Culture and send at least two T25 flasks of confluent cells.
  • Some panels may require additional flasks (dependent on size of genes, amount of Sanger sequencing required, etc.). Multiple test requests may also require additional flasks. Please contact us for details.
  • Send specimens in insulated, shatterproof container overnight.
  • Cell cultures may be shipped at room temperature or refrigerated.
  • Label the flasks with the patient name, date of birth, and/or ID number.
  • We strongly recommend maintaining a local back-up culture. We do not culture cells.
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